Autumn is coming. But you need to find time for weed control... By removing them in the fall from the garden and garden, you will largely ensure a successful outcome of the new season and future harvest.
Weeds prevail over the entire summer season, from spring to late autumn. With the first rays of the sun, when nature comes to life, mother-and-stepmother, dandelion, wheatgrass and other uninvited guests of your garden immediately wake up. In drought, cold, torrential rains, the first shoots of root crops, lettuce, dill hardly break through, and weeds do not care: they feel great in any bad weather.
Throughout the summer, we spend a large proportion of our time again on weed control. The harvest was harvested, it got colder, and young weeds turned green again in the garden. Weeds deprive cultivated plants, first of all, of nutrients. Science has established that when fertilizers are applied to the soil, cultivated plants absorb on average 40%, and weeds absorb 60-70% of nutrients. Therefore, before fertilizing the soil, deal with the weeds, otherwise you may later lose the entire crop.
The benefits of mineral fertilizers are reduced on vegetable plantations by 85%, on potatoes - up to 53%, in a fruit and berry garden - up to 40-70%. Some types of weeds, along with the absorption of nutrients from the soil, are able to assimilate them by their roots even from the roots of cultivated plants. These include the malignant weed of creeping wheatgrass, which sucks phosphorus from the roots of fruit trees with its roots. Field sow thistle and field longline take away potassium from vegetable plants, and quinoa, fragrant chamomile, tenacious bedstraw - nitrogen and magnesium.
All garden and horticultural crops cannot do without regular watering, and in weedy areas, water is captured, first of all, by weeds, since their highly developed root system sometimes reaches groundwater. Therefore, everyone is familiar with the picture: in a dry summer, cultivated plants, weakened by a lack of moisture, are quickly suppressed by weeds, which easily extract moisture from the lower layers of the soil. So, the roots of the field sow thistle penetrate deep to 7 m, while in most vegetable crops the maximum is up to 1-1.5 m. In addition, the weeds, uneconomically consuming moisture, constantly take it away from cultivated plants.
In addition to the lack of water and nutrients in the soil, poisonous root excretions of weeds are the cause of oppression, and sometimes even the death of cultivated plants. Toxic root exudates build up in the soil, causing soil fatigue. In such areas, all vegetable crops develop worse, and sometimes die. Therefore, mastering a new area, heavily weedy, do not rush to plant and sow vegetables and berry crops. First, try to remove the roots of perennial weeds, sow the site with green manure crops (green live fertilizer: lupine, clover, alfalfa, and others, which is plowed into the soil), and only then plan the placement of cultivated plants.
Weeds, shading cultivated plants, absorb sunlight, without which plants cannot create organic matter, and therefore a crop. The stems stretch out, become less durable, lie down, the fruits do not ripen. At the same time, the temperature of the soil under the weeds decreases by 2-5 ° C, which reduces the activity of soil microorganisms. This is especially felt by heat-loving crops: tomato, cucumber, beans, pepper, eggplant.
Another nuisance from weeds - they are poisonous to humans and animals. Many people have a habit of holding the stems of different plants in their mouths, which often leads to poisoning, especially children (hemlock, black henbane, hellebore, creeping bitterweed, ragweed).
On contaminated plantings of potatoes, beets, carrots, the dry matter content of carotene, starch, and ascorbic acid is halved or more. The quality of milk deteriorates when wormwood, wild onions, and rape get into the hay.
Weeds are a hotbed of pests and diseases of cultivated plants, the total harmfulness of which is two-thirds of all crop losses. Often insects appear first on weeds and then on crops. Pests such as meadow moth, winter scoop, beet weevil, cabbage white beetle and many other pests of the garden and vegetable garden, first lay their eggs on weeds (white moth, bindweed, thistle, etc.), and then young caterpillars move to seedlings of cultivated plants and gradually eat them.
Aphids, ticks, Colorado potato beetle parasitize on sow thistle, bindweed, field. Various nematodes, soil pests also reproduce well on sow thistle and white mari. Weeds of the cruciferous family (rape, mustard) contribute to the reproduction of earthen flea beetles, cabbage butterflies, cabbage aphids. Cabbage fly and cabbage moth first develop on rape and shepherd's purse. Thus, the maximum cleansing of garden and garden plots, wastelands, border areas from weeds slows down the reproduction of pests and the development of diseases. Removing large tracts of weeds from autumn will save young plants from death in spring and summer.
A distinctive feature of weeds is their fertility and vitality. A huge amount of them accumulates in the arable layer of the soil for several years. Therefore, even with careful weeding, it is possible to get rid of weeds only after a few years, and even then not completely. Carefully weeded beds will regrow in a week, especially in warm and humid weather. Most of the seeds are carried by the wind over very long distances thanks to the special devices they have, the tuft hairs (sow thistle, dandelion, coltsfoot).
Water currents also contribute to the spread of weeds, so the lower parts of the garden and garden are more clogged. The seeds of such weeds as chicken millet, quinoa, thistle, staying in water for up to 40 months, do not lose their germination. Therefore, watering plants with water from a pond, especially from stagnant places, increases the weediness of the site.
With various thorns, holds, anchors and hooks on their surface, weed seeds travel with animals at any distance. Even ants sometimes take away weed seeds several meters from their shedding. But especially a lot of weed seeds end up in vegetable gardens and orchard plots with fresh manure (from 80 thousand to 7 million pieces per ton). Therefore, it is better to compost fresh manure for biothermal decomposition, during which weed seeds lose their germination, and harmful microorganisms die.
The germination of weed seeds is significantly reduced by the layer-by-layer addition of a mixture of urea and lime to the compost mass (10 g each per 1 kg of manure mass). At the same time, almost all seeds lose their germination in one month, and the fertilizing value of the compost increases. For a better course of biothermal processes, the laying of the mass should be loose, the humidity should not be more than 70%. The addition of food waste, wood ash, slurry, plant residues will enrich the compost, and in two years it will be the best organic fertilizer.
For convenience, the compost box is divided into three parts: in the first, organic matter for composting is laid, in the second, composting processes go through, and from the third, the compost is used as fertilizer. You can speed up the composting process by adding earthworms. Weed seeds that have passed through the intestines of the worms lose their germination. In addition, earthworms loosen the soil, converting organic waste into a valuable fertilizer - vermicompost.
Start the autumn digging as soon as the site is cleared of vegetable crops. Dig up heavily weedy areas, especially with perennial weeds, in August or September, without waiting for late autumn. Dig up the soil with a garden pitchfork to the depth of the fertile layer.
Carefully select the weed rhizomes and burn them. The shovel cuts the rhizomes of the weeds, and with a not very thorough cleaning, the area quickly overgrows with them again. Pour the dug up soil and cover with old film. Heat and moisture will definitely affect the germination of the remaining rhizomes and seeds of annual weeds. After 2-3 weeks, remove the film, dig up the soil again with a pitchfork, choosing weeds. The operation can be repeated if the area is not sufficiently cleaned.
At the last digging into the soil, add 1 sq. m: lime, chalk (0.2-1 kg); ash (2-3 glasses), superphosphate and potassium chloride (50-70 g each). Potassium chloride can only be applied in the fall. Chlorine, harmful to plants, will disappear during the winter. Potassium chloride can be replaced with potassium sulfate. With an interval of 2-3 weeks after liming, compost is introduced (5-6 kg per 1 sq. M). Fresh manure is applied only on light soils and taking into account the fact that it is not planned to grow root crops, onions, garlic, and tomatoes there. Liming is not carried out in the area where strawberries will be grown.
In the fall, it is necessary to mow all the weeds along the side of the site and the road, burn them. The sown grasses for sodding the garden are mowed before flowering 3-4 times per season, and their green mass is crushed. Frequent mowing weakens and suppresses weed growth.
To effectively control weeds, pests and diseases and to better utilize nutrients by plants, crop rotation rules must be followed.
It is effective against perennial weeds and when using herbicides.
T. Zavyalova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Let the word "siderates" not associate you with agriculture. It is very useful to grow these crops in a private garden. Wheat, clover, or mustard, which is sown into the soil after the main crops are harvested, help restore soil fertility and suppress weed growth.
The best green manure plants
Clover, broad beans, vetch (spring and winter), peas (seed and field), lupine (white, yellow, blue)
Mustard, rapeseed (spring and winter), oil radish, rape
Rye, wheat, oats, buckwheat, phacelia
Have you taken note of all the items from this list? Try not to forget anything so that in the spring you do not waste time on correcting autumn mistakes.
How to plant shrubs correctly - when to start?
And decorative, and coniferous, and fruit shrubs can be planted both in spring and autumn. The planting season in the spring months is determined by the moment the earth thaws, as soon as the earth begins to fallow and the night frosts come to naught - the time has come.
In the fall, planting in the ground begins from the moment the leaf fall begins.
Attention. Agronomists recommend planting shrubs in spring, they will take root by winter, gain the required amount of nutrients and overwinter without complications.
In autumn, it should be planted only if there is a sufficient earthy coma on the plant, which reliably covers the root system.
Now we will figure out what is worth planting before winter.
They can winter well under the snow. Before planting these crops before winter, it is imperative to fertilize the soil, and then carefully dig up and loosen it.
It is best to fill the grooves with seeds with humus or peat. Plant the seeds deeper, then cover them with straw to keep them from freezing. As a rule, seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of + 5c, so guess the period when long-term warming is not expected. Otherwise, seedlings may die with the onset of frost. The ideal temperature for planting is + 3-5C during the day and below zero at night. Let's say you can plant dill with garlic in September - they will not be able to germinate until the first autumn frosts. Closer to the onset of winter, it is better to plant parsley, cilantro, onion and sorrel. And spinach does not like snow, so take this into account when planting before winter.
The summer cottage or soda area on which you are going to plant seeds in the fall should not be flooded, and in winter it should be reliably covered with snow.
By the way, take a little more seeds for planting, given the increased death of seedlings, than in the spring. If you do everything right, and you are lucky with the weather, then in the spring you will get the first harvest on your site 2-3 weeks earlier, and all because it is economically profitable to plant in the fall.
We propagate larch by seeds at home
Larch will decorate any site. We can grow this beautiful deciduous coniferous tree ourselves from seeds, rather than buying its seedlings from garden centers. Autumn is the best time to harvest seeds. Some species are harder to propagate by seed. their cones do not open well and give up seeds reluctantly, and the germination rate is low.
Many green cones of my larch have such a tuft
A colorful garden in gray autumn: how to maintain and decorate a garden during the dark months of the year
Golden autumn is beautiful, but still, when the leaves fall, the darkest, dampest months of the year begin and nature loses its bright colors. Nevertheless, a clean, well-tended garden with colorful accents of flowers, shrubs or decors will delight the eye even on the most cloudy autumn day.
What work needs to be done in the garden in autumn and where to find brightness when the flowers have already faded, reminds plant specialist K Senukai in the Ozols shopping center Lina Spure.
Garden hygiene is especially important in autumn
Autumn is the most suitable time for sanitary pruning of fruit trees, berry bushes, ornamental bushes and roses - first of all, you need to cut out all diseased, dry and damaged branches, as well as damage to the bark, which are very clearly visible.
"All cut sites must be treated with a putty for wounds or Leran, which has additional disinfecting properties, since in autumn the weather is most often rainy and damp, which contributes to the multiplication of bacteria and infections. This year, various fungal infections of plants were very active, therefore it is important to treat plants and soil with fungicides. For the same reason, rotting leaves should not be used as compost or mulch this year, but if possible burn them in a metal barrel so that nothing of the leaves remains in the soil. annual plants - dry it for a few days and then put it on the fire ", advises Lina Spure.
To keep the garden clean and healthy, the grass must also be mowed while it is still growing, so that the length does not exceed 10-15 centimeters for the winter. In addition, the grass must be thoroughly cleaned of rotten fruits and fallen leaves.
In the fall, you also need to win the last battle of this year against weeds, which are especially noticeable after the harvest. "At this time of the year, only mechanical means will be effective - a special weed remover or ticks, a hoe, a pitchfork, a shovel and, finally, hands. Chemicals are effective only in warm weather, when the plants are actively absorbing all substances. When the air temperature drops below + 5 degrees, the chemicals no longer perform their function, and when the leaves fall off, the plants do not absorb them, ”explains Lina Spure.
The garden must receive nutrients before winter begins
Once the soil has been cleared of annual plant debris and weeds, it can be prepared for next spring. First of all, the soil must be treated with fungicides or copper sulfate. After that, it is recommended to check the acidity of the soil, which in Latvia quickly becomes higher than the norm. "This can be done with a digital soil acidity meter, which doesn't require a lot of money to buy, but it comes in handy every year.The normal pH is 5.5-6.5, and the ideal balance is between 5.6 and 6. If the soil is too acidic, dolomite flour or lime should be added to it, ”says the plant specialist.
The soil is then ready for fertilization. In autumn, it is recommended to use organic fertilizers - manure or compost. Green manure or green manure is an excellent remedy - it is best to choose a white mustard suitable for any soil. Mustard seeds are sown and, when the plant reaches a height of about 20 centimeters (or after 25-30 days), they are mowed and added to the soil.
You can also use ready-made autumn fertilizer, observing the proportions indicated by the manufacturer. But you need to be careful with mineral fertilizers, especially if you use dolomite flour, which should not be used with superphosphate. Lina Spure reminds that the good old principle "less is better" applies to fertilizers, and it is advisable to do without mineral fertilizers in autumn.
When everything is well-groomed, you can do beauty
Until the ground is frozen, you need to dig up the flowers that will winter indoors - dahlias, cannes and gladioli. The last warm days are the best time for planting spring flowers - daffodils, crocuses, irises, ornamental bulbous plants (tulips are best planted later, 2-3 weeks before frost), as well as winter onions and garlic, roses, strawberries, black currants, gooseberries , bush blueberries, fruit trees.
And, of course, it's time to think about what your garden will look like when the last flower of Indian summer blooms. "Perennial flowers winter well in Latvia, which bloom beautifully in autumn. Some of the most popular are chrysanthemums. Small-flowered chrysanthemums are usually more fragrant, and large-flowered ones are more beautiful. All that remains is to choose a beauty that is pleasing to the eyes or nose, and do not forget to mulch flowers and lightly cover them at the time of frost.Autumn anemones that bloom with delicate white-pink flowers are very beautiful.Perennial asters begin to bloom in the second half of summer and remain in bloom until the beginning of frost.Ordinary heather looks great, retaining its decorative appearance in winter - perhaps not so bright, but quite beautiful.A very interesting variety of heather - Erica, which looks much more luxurious, but it does not tolerate winter so well, and in cold weather it is better to place it in a greenhouse.Various decorative grasses are also very effective, but they should be planted in such a way that they have where to grow. A particularly bright accent to the garden is given by a reddish or op ange barberry. And we often forget that roses also create a great autumn accent - floribunda roses, climbing roses, ground cover roses, which bloom even in very late autumn. Only hybrid tea roses are not suitable for this purpose, ”says Lina Spure.
If you don't like bare ground, a good solution would be heather, chrysanthemums or Erica in pots, which can be exposed in the open and rearranged if necessary. They can also be used to decorate balcony boxes or freestanding flower pots. In anticipation of Christmas, you can already buy a thuja or decorative pine tree in advance, which in the dark will delight you with garlands of light bulbs on the branches, and after that it can be an excellent addition to a hedge. Leaves and flowers dried in a dehydrator will perfectly complement autumn compositions. A pumpkin put in a basket with heather and dry bright yellow autumn leaves will delight you until Christmas.
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