Raspberry Bryanskaya: description of the variety and cultivation features

Raspberry Bryanskaya: description of the variety and cultivation features

Each gardener strives to grow on his site only the best, most productive and large-fruited varieties of berry crops. Moreover, the less trouble with the plant, the better. From year to year, breeders work hard to create varieties that meet these requirements. One of them is Bryanskaya raspberry - a real masterpiece of domestic breeding.

The history of growing raspberries Bryansk

Bryanskaya is very often confused with the Bryanskoe miracle variety, attributing to it the characteristics of the latter. This is a gross mistake - despite the fact that both varieties were bred in the same institution and the same person took part in their creation, there is nothing in common between the Bryansk and Bryansk divas - they have different ripening periods, taste and cultivation technology.

Bryanskaya appeared at the Kokinsky stronghold of the All-Russian Institute of Selection and Technology of Horticulture and Nursery. This raspberry was sent to the state test in 1977, and ten years later it was included in the State Register of Plants under the identifier 7704739 and zoned for the Central, Volga-Vyatka and Middle Volga regions. The authorship of the variety was assigned to Ivan Vasilyevich Kazakov.

As a result of crossing the varieties Kostinbrodskaya (left) and Novost Kuzmina (right), raspberry Bryanskaya appeared

The varieties Kostinbrodskaya and Novost Kuzmina acted as the parents of Bryanskaya, the latter of which is positioned as an absolutely unpretentious variety recommended for growing by novice gardeners. Both varieties are distinguished by high self-fertility, pleasant fruit taste, stable yield and frost resistance, but at the same time they often get sick and are affected by pests. Bryanskaya inherited both positive and some negative qualities of her parents.

Description and characteristics of the variety

The Bryansk raspberry bush is tall and powerful, but at the same time slightly spreading, rather compact. The ability to form shoots is average - new branches are formed in small numbers (usually 4–6 pieces), but they are quite enough to preserve the bush and its harmonious development. After serious damage to the aboveground part (for example, freezing), a temporary loss of the typical plant appearance is possible.

Bryanskaya bushes are tall, slightly spreading, with erect shoots

The branches of the Bryanskaya are erect, with drooping tops and a small number of thorns. Leaves are compound, typical of raspberries, dark green above, whitish below. The flowers are small, white, located in the axils of the leaves or at the tops of the shoots. The berries are rather large, of a beautiful ruby ​​color, round-shaped or blunt-conical in shape. The average fruit weight is 3 grams. The pulp is sweet, delicate and very aromatic, has an excellent taste - 4.7 points out of a possible five.

Bryanskaya raspberry berries of a beautiful ruby ​​color with aromatic sweet pulp

Although raspberries of this variety are zoned in three regions of the country, due to their unpretentiousness, they are in great demand throughout Russia, as well as in the neighboring countries. Bryansk raspberry is early ripe, characterized by increased winter hardiness. The yield is above average - 50–80 kg / ha. Due to its excellent taste characteristics, the fruits of Bryanskaya can be consumed both fresh and used for processing. The cultivar shows relative resistance to anthracnose and didimella, but is often affected by spider mites.

Landing features

The plant is planted both in autumn and spring, but in the first case, all activities must be carried out at least four weeks before frost, otherwise the seedlings will not have time to acquire a sufficient number of roots and will simply die. The best option is to carry out planting in the last decade of September - early October.

Requirements for soil and planting material

For any raspberry (including Bryansk), fertile soils with moderate moisture and light loams are most preferable. On sandstones, heavy clay or swampy soils, the plant will not develop normally and will not bear fruit.

This culture tolerates acidic soils much better than most plants, however, high acidity is harmful in itself - such soil dries out for a long time and is poorly aerated, it is very difficult for the roots to absorb moisture and useful elements from it. As a result, the development of plants slows down or stops completely, they weaken and become more susceptible to various diseases.

If you know that the soil on the site has high acidity, it should be sure to lime it.

For liming, 0.5 kg of slaked lime, 0.5 kg of dolomite flour, 0.3–0.7 kg of chalk or 0.4–0.5 kg of ash are added to each square meter of soil. The selected substance is evenly scattered over the area and embedded to a depth of 20–35 cm by digging. Liming is recommended to be carried out a year or two before planting raspberries (in extreme cases - 6 months). In the future, the procedure will need to be repeated every 3-5 years.

Liming the site is best done 1–2 years before planting raspberries

It is best to plant raspberries in areas where legumes and cereals, dill, garlic, beets, carrots and lupines grew last year. Avoid planting raspberries after tomatoes, strawberries, potatoes, peppers, and eggplants as this increases the likelihood of developing diseases. Choose well-lit areas for planting, protected from gusts of cold winds.

Seedlings are chosen medium-sized, with two or three short shoots (the larger the bush, the harder it tolerates the transplant) and several powerful roots. On shoots and leaves there should be no traces of mechanical damage, signs of disease and pest damage. To protect the seedlings from verticillary wilting, before planting, their roots are treated with Agate 25K, following the manufacturer's instructions. It is also good to soak the root system in Kornevin's solution for 6-8 hours - this stimulates root formation and protects raspberries from fungal diseases.

Raspberry seedlings should be medium-sized, with two or three short shoots

How to plant raspberries of the Bryansk variety

Proper planting is key to caring for any crop. Bryanskaya does not impose any individual requirements, she is planted according to the standard scheme. Raspberries can be planted both in separate bushes and in trenches - it depends on the preferences of the gardener. In the first case, the landing is done as follows:

  1. In the spring, after the last snow melts, for each bush, dig a planting hole measuring 50x40x40 cm.The gap between the holes is at least 50 cm, the row spacing is at least 150 cm.
  2. Prepare for each seedling a fertile mixture of 10 kg of compost or rotted manure, 400 grams of ash, 100 grams of superphosphate, 50 grams of potassium sulfate and the top layer of the removed soil.
  3. Place a layer of nutrient mixture into the hole and place the seedling on top so that the replacement bud is just below ground level. Spread out the roots gently and sprinkle with the rest of the nutrient mixture.

    When planting, it is important that the replacement bud is just below ground level, because a new shoot will grow from it to replace the one that has fruited (it is called the replacement shoot)

  4. Tamp the soil well near the planted bush, make a shallow hole and pour 5-7 liters of water over the plant.
  5. Mulch the soil around the seedling with leaves, humus or rotted straw and prune the plant at a height of 30 cm.

    Mulching reduces moisture evaporation and inhibits weed growth

Some gardeners recommend removing all the leaves after planting to make it easier for the plant to take root.

If planting is carried out in the fall, then about 1.5 months before it, dig the area to a depth of 25 cm. At the same time, apply fertilizers: for each square meter you will need 2-3 buckets of humus, 200-400 grams of superphosphate and 100-200 grams of sulfuric acid potassium. This procedure will allow for the next 5 years to do without phosphorus and potassium supplements. Further actions are similar to the spring planting, with the exception of the second point - since the full-fledged feeding of the site is done in advance, no fertilizer is added to the wells themselves.

If you plan to grow raspberries in a trench way, then you need to plant it a little differently:

  1. Ditches about 60 cm deep and 120 cm wide are dug on the site, separating the upper soil layer from the lower one. The row spacing is at least 1.5 meters.

    To plant raspberries in rows, trenches 1.2 m wide and 60 cm deep are dug on the site

  2. The bottom of the trenches is covered with a ten-centimeter cushion of organic matter - rotted manure, plant residues, fallen leaves.
  3. The top layer of soil is mixed with fertilizers (a bucket of rotted manure, half a bucket of sand, a third of a bucket of chicken droppings, a glass of urea and half a glass of potash and phosphorus fertilizers for each running meter).
  4. The ditches are filled with a fertile mixture, after which raspberry bushes are placed in them, observing a distance of 50 cm between the latter. Then the plants are watered. The bottom layer of soil removed from the pit is mixed with sand and humus and the ditches are completely filled up.

Video: how to plant raspberries correctly

Subtleties of care

Care for raspberries of the Bryansk variety is carried out according to the following agrotechnical rules:

  1. If the raspberries are planted in rows, then it is most advisable to build a support for it, that is, a trellis. In spring, stakes with a height of at least 1.5 meters are dug in along the edges of the site and two rows of wire are pulled between them at a height of 60–70 cm and 120 cm. If the site is large, then in order to avoid sagging of the wire, additional pegs must be driven into the ground every 5 meters. The shoots are fanned out on the support and strengthened. Two years later, two more rows of wire are added to the trellis - at a height of 30 cm and 150 cm. Among other things, raspberries strengthened in this way are much easier to care for.

    So that the raspberry branches do not break with gusts of wind and from the weight of the crop, you can fix them on the trellis

  2. Plants are rarely watered, but so that the ground is wet by at least 30–40 cm. As a rule, 7–8 liters of water are used for one adult bush. The first watering is carried out at the end of May, the next - in the second decade of June. During the ripening of the fruit, the raspberry needs another two or three waterings, and the last time the plants are watered at the end of fruiting. If the weather is very hot, without natural precipitation, raspberries should be watered every week, but if it is rainy, there is no need for artificial humidification. Do not use cold water for watering and avoid getting liquid on the leaves - this can provoke the development of fungi.
  3. In the last decade of March - early April, raspberries are fed with nitrogen (5 grams of urea and a shovel of cow dung are diluted in 10 liters of water).
  4. To stimulate fruiting, pruning should be done in early spring. Strong, well-developed branches are shortened by 15–20 cm, and weak, sick and frozen branches are completely removed. The cut shoots are burned.

    In order for raspberries to bear fruit abundantly, pruning is necessary in the spring.

  5. Special attention is paid to preventive measures. Before budding, you need to clean the bushes from dead shoots, remove the remnants of last year's leaves and treat the plants with 1% Bordeaux liquid. To prevent the appearance of spider mites, raspberries are sprayed with Cumulus or Karbofos before flowering. To protect plants from pests, Actellik and Fufanon are used, and Topaz is used to protect against powdery mildew. If, nevertheless, pests or signs of any disease appear on the bushes, it is necessary to treat with appropriate preparations according to the manufacturer's instructions.
  6. It is imperative to weed out the weeds in the aisles so that they do not pull useful elements from the soil and do not cause the development of fungi.
  7. Periodically, it is necessary to loosen the soil near the bushes, and then mulch it with straw, humus, chopped bark or needles.
  8. To prevent raspberries from spreading all over the courtyard, a fence is made around the perimeter of the raspberry - for example, sheets of iron are driven into the ground.
  9. In autumn, the old mulch is removed and burned, and then shallow digging of the soil is carried out. If more than five years have passed since planting, potassium-phosphorus fertilizing is introduced into the soil - 60 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium salt for each plant. Fertilizers containing nitrogen cannot be used in the fall.
  10. When the raspberries finish bearing fruit, they are pruned again, removing dry and diseased shoots. The cut branches are burned.
  11. Although the Bryansk variety is highly winter-hardy and can easily withstand frosts without shelter, it is still better not to risk it and provide the raspberries with reliable protection. In late autumn, leaves are removed from the shoots by running a hand in a mitten from the bottom up (but not vice versa, so as not to injure the buds), then the branches are tilted to the ground and the trellises are attached to the lower wire. Then the raspberries are covered with spunbond or other covering material.

    Bent and tied raspberry shoots are covered with spunbond to protect from frost

Table: raspberry diseases

Table: common raspberry pests

Video: rules for caring for raspberries

Bryanskaya raspberry is one of the most unpretentious, it can grow in almost any climate. By properly planting the plants and providing them with proper care, you will receive a bountiful harvest of tasty and aromatic berries.

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Watch the video: How to Build a Raspberry Trellis