Beneficial insects in the garden (part 2)

Beneficial insects in the garden (part 2)

Read the first part of the article Beneficial insects in the garden


How to use biological methods of plant protection

Lacewing

It is necessary to protect the moist and shady habitats of insects and the growing areas of plants suitable for laying eggs, protected from the sun entomophages.

They can be located both on the personal plot and on the lands adjacent to it. For example, lacewings (their voracious larvae are called aphid lions) are often chosen for egg laying in thickets of ferns and evergreen shrubs. Ladybugs often mate on white and yellow flowers: tansy, chamomile (poplar), yarrow. Spiders and ground beetles prefer to live and lay their eggs in tall grass under hedge bushes, from where they make hunting forays into garden beds at night.

Care must be taken to create hedges with nectar-bearing plants picked up in them. A variety of insects live in hedges: both harmful and useful. Entomophages eat phytophages and thereby prevent them from multiplying uncontrollably, but at the same time they never completely destroy them, maintaining their nutrition and, accordingly, their numbers. If mass reproduction of pests suddenly begins in the garden, then entomophages move to cultivated plants and help the gardener cope with the "invasion". In this case, the sequence of events that is characteristic of a garden without a hedge is disrupted. If there is no hedge, then in a year favorable for the reproduction of pests, the number of pests will first increase.

In places of accumulation of multiplied pests, entomophages appear only during the flight of their adults. The abundance of food leads to a sharp increase in the number of entomophages, but there is some delay in the reproduction of entomophages compared to the reproduction of phytophages for the time it takes for predatory larvae and adult insects to develop from eggs laid by entomophages. This usually takes 2-3 weeks. Hedges deprive phytophages of 2-3 weeks of the advantage of uncontrolled reproduction and are thus a natural buffer that helps to achieve a biological balance between beneficial insects and pests. Chemical methods of protection are not used in hedges.

Ladybug larva,
aphid-eating

Spirea hedge quite decorative, unpretentious, tolerates a haircut well and came into fashion in the 50s of the last century. Spireas have a wide variety in the shape and size of the bushes, the time and duration of flowering, the color of flowers and the shape of the inflorescences. At the moment, the fact is completely forgotten that, being good honey plants, spireas attract many adult individuals of entomophages. They are especially loved by riders. Many species of riders feed and mate on their flowers. This is what brought such popularity to spirea hedges at one time. The flowering of spring species of spirea is early, short, but friendly. The flowering of summer species is the same massive, but longer.

Of all types of spirea, willow spirea is the most beloved by riders, which is a late-flowering species and is distinguished by a long, gradual flowering. In our region, willow spirea bushes begin to bloom in early July, and the last wave of their flowering ends in late September. Regardless of the weather conditions of the year, which can delay the flight time of the imago, insects always find nectar from it and “remember” the feeding place. The creation of a spirea hedge is one of the effective methods of biological protection of the garden.

Hover fly

Creating a mixed coniferous-deciduous hedge is not an easy creative process. Ephedra (thuja, spruce) are the skeletal elements of such a fence. Sealing elements can be decorative flowering apple trees, hawthorns, spireas. All of these plants can be cut well and can be used to make something beautiful. Elderberry (common and black), low maples (Ginnala, Tatar, etc.), low-growing varieties of mountain ash (Burka, Titan) are good as "podzabornye" plants.

Adding decorative apple trees, hawthorn, spirea to a mixed hedge, we pursue two goals. Firstly, the beautiful flowering and bright fruits of these plants increase the decorative effect of the hedge, and secondly, phytophages "love" apple trees and hawthorns. Spirea bushes attract imago entomophages during flowering. Females of wasps, after feeding spirea flowers with nectar and breeding near feeding places, will lay eggs in hedges in the habitats of phytophages. This creates the conditions for a biological balance that helps the garden in case of epizootic growth of pests.

Persian lilac

There are two more plants that can be present in a hedge or solo in the interior of your garden. This is a Persian lilac that is distinguished by abundant flowering. She is an excellent honey plant and is loved by many insects. For some reason, it is found in our gardens less and less. And one more lilac - crackle, similar to lilac only with its leaves. Its bush "resembles" a Persian lilac bush and by the age of 30 it is a stately beautiful multi-stemmed tree 10-12 meters high. This lilac has three types: Amur cradle lilac, Chinese cracker lilac and Japanese cracker lilac. All three species grow in the Northwest. In the 50s of the last century, it was quite popular, but now it is undeservedly practically forgotten.

It blooms three weeks later than common lilac. Its abundant flowering lasts almost a month. Small white or slightly creamy flowers with a strong honey aroma (not like the smell of ordinary lilac flowers) have far protruding stamens and are collected on short pedicels in large paniculate inflorescences up to 25 cm long. The flowering panicle, due to the long stamens of the flowers, does not look like the flowers of common lilac. Japanese cracker lilac has the largest inflorescences (30x18 cm). During flowering, the strong honey scent of this large shrub spreads over long distances and attracts many insects. Like Volzhanka, flowering brushes of cod lilacs are always successful with entomophages.

Japanese spirea in the garden

Hedges with beautifully flowering bushes attract another type of insect to the garden - pollinators... The more pollinators visit your garden, the higher the yields of berries, fruits and vegetables. A garden of continuous flowering, created on the basis of nectar-bearing plants, helps to achieve a natural balance between the number of "beneficial" and "harmful" insects. Often, pesticides are used against pests in gardens, which sharply reduce the beneficial activity of entomophages. All treatments with pesticides, if you really can't "live" without them, should be carried out before the garden blooms. This strategy leads to the accumulation of beneficial insects in the garden from year to year and contributes to the creation of a biological balance.

In my garden I have been adhering to the stated concept for more than 30 years. Hazel trees are planted along the northwest border of my site, and on the east side there are Ginnal maples and honeysuckle. They provide pollen to early emerging entomophages. On the southeast side, the site is framed by a hedge of willow spirea. I don't use insecticides.

The pollen of plants flowering in the garden and meadow grass along the ditches and the land adjacent to the plot provide insects with a food base throughout the summer. This strategy leads to the accumulation of beneficial insects in the garden from year to year and contributes to the creation of a biological balance.

Larisa Semyonova,
member of the gardeners section of the House of Scientists. Gorky

Photo by Olga Rubtsova and E. Valentinov


Beneficial insects in the garden (part 2) - garden and vegetable garden

Not all insects that settle on plants in your garden or vegetable garden are harmful - there are also useful species that help a person to destroy leaf-eating and leaf-sucking pests. In order not to accidentally destroy such "assistants", you need to imagine how they look. On the .

All insect pests of cultivated plants are divided into two main types according to the way of feeding and, accordingly, according to the structure of the oral apparatus: leaf-sucking and leaf-eating. Of course, it is best not to fight this scourge, but not to allow it to appear in the garden or in the garden. But .

Numerous diseases of beets are easily amenable to effective prevention with just one agricultural technique. This is the correct crop rotation on the garden plot. With its observance, no diseases in the cultivation of beets will create difficulties, it will be a process.

Diseases of carrots do not allow growing large root crops. And potential pests of carrots destroy those plants that still managed to form. With a systematic cumulative effect of the disease and pests of carrots, the gardener does not receive even 10% of the potential.

There is a huge variety of insects, beetles, and gastropods that threaten future crops. Let's consider what the main pests of plants exist on the personal plot and how you can wage a victorious struggle with them in the battle for the harvest. some types of plant pests.

On any garden plot, there is a threat that the moth caterpillar will destroy most of the growing crop in a short time. Before tackling the moth caterpillar on a variety of crops, it is important to learn about alternative protection options. For example, installing protective ones.

Protecting potatoes from pests and diseases is a priority for every gardener who wants to get a good harvest. Viruses, bacteria, insects and other pathogens infect not only potato tubers, but also tops, and it is possible to reveal signs of ailments even on young, immature ones.

The most dangerous pests of apple trees, the fight against which on a personal plot should be carried out tirelessly, are brooms, moths, sawflies, apple moths and flower beetles. All of them cause significant damage to the orchard, and without timely preventive measures, you can lose the crop, and when.

As with all vegetable crops, pests cause great harm to tomatoes, and in order not to lose the crop, you will have to work hard. The most dangerous pests of tomatoes include cotton moths and nematodes - they damage plants at all stages of development, and with each generation.

The first scientific descriptions of the external structure of insects, presented in entomological works, date back to the 16th century. The characteristic of the histological structure by scientists-entomologists was given only three centuries later. Almost every member of the Insect class has its own characteristics.

It would seem that raspberries and garden strawberries are not much alike. The first is a dense, fairly tall shrub, sometimes crimson thickets exceed human growth. And strawberries are low bushes that rarely grow above 20 cm. However, despite this, raspberries and strawberries are often.

The most susceptible to diseases and pests are tomatoes, which are grown in areas with poor drainage, or if the season is too rainy. This culture is absolutely intolerant to high humidity, and therefore, during the period of prolonged rains, it is guaranteed to become infected with zoospores.

As in the case of other fruit crops, pears, alas, are not immune from diseases and pests. The most dangerous insects that harm trees include aphids, ticks, leaf flies, leafworms, moths, moths and sawflies. Bears, lancet, scoops, do no less harm to the garden.

  • Diseases
  • Water bodies
  • Pests
  • Trees
  • Greens
  • Landscape design
  • Vegetables
  • garden plot
  • Weeds
  • Fertilizers
  • Fruits
  • Flowers

For many, watermelons are the symbols of the southern regions with hot dishes.

Sorts of plums grown in the Moscow region and other average Russian.

Cherry plum, which is part of the stone fruit group, is used.

Choosing which variety of cherries is better to plant on your backyard.

Quince is the only representative of the genus of the same name. ...

Currants (both red and black) are popular in Russia.

Like any other berry shrub, raspberries have their own characteristics.

Eichornia or water hyacinth is an ideal plant for keeping in an aquarium, but only during the summer. In winter, this sissy.

Almost all aquarium plants floating on the surface of the water die in winter, and therefore can serve as decoration only in summer. Collect.

An artificial pond, made by hand, serves to decorate the infield. Harmoniously fitting it into the existing one.

The design of a reservoir is a troublesome business, but very interesting. Approaching work with a fair amount of imagination and showing your creativity.

A decorative pond in the country is the dream of every gardener, because nothing soothes like bubbling water and swaying water lilies.

Your own pond in the garden area is an opportunity to organize a quiet reserved area for relaxation in hot summer weather. ...

To equip a plot with large level differences, placing a house, a garden, flower beds, a vegetable garden on it, and even requires a bathhouse with a pond.

Celosia is considered one of the most attractive flowers in the garden.

Zinnia (lat.Zinnia) is a Mexican shrub belonging to.

So, you have decided on the place and size of the future decorative.

Many indoor plant lovers collect collections more often.

Technology for forcing ornamental bulbous plants in a protected environment.

Ornamental and deciduous garden plants of open ground, grown.

Homeland - Europe, Western Asia. The hellebore is real.


Councils website

The ladybug beetle is extremely useful for the garden. Ladybugs are relatively widespread in Russia. This is a beneficial insect, the larvae of which feed on various harmful insects such as aphids, copperhead and scale insects. During the day, the ladybug eats up to 200 aphid larvae, and the larvae of "stethorus" eat 500 plant mites in 15 days, which has an extremely positive effect on the garden and vegetable garden.


Also, a useful insect for the garden is the lacewing. The adult is a yellow-green insect with fragile mesh wings and shiny golden eyes, which gives off an unpleasant odor. Lacewing larvae devour aphids and other insects harmful to plants. One lacewing larva can destroy up to 30 spider mites per hour, and in the course of its entire life - more than 4 thousand aphid larvae.


The hoverfly, or rather its larvae, kill about 200 aphids every day. Also useful insects for the garden are ground beetles, larvae of soft beetles, predatory nematodes, predatory mites and spiders, millipedes, dragonflies, etc.


Ants are also useful insects, but not all. The exception is the black garden ant, which feeds on the secretions of aphids.


Garden Beneficial Insects - Almost all thin webbed insects that feed offspring at the expense of other insects. Some lay their eggs in the eggs of others and are called egg-eaters, others (riders) parasitize inside or outside the pests.

Of great importance for the preservation and accumulation of entomophages (beneficial insects for the garden, which devour harmful) has a competent use of chemicals for plant protection, for example, the use of drugs that are low-toxic for entomophages and selective processing of plants, taking into account the infection with harmful insects.

Back in the USSR, a program was developed to saturate the garden with useful parasites. Such a parasite as Trichogramma (a genus of parasitic ovarian wasps of the Trichogrammatid family of the Hymenoptera order) has received widespread use. Trichograms (extremely useful insects for the garden) are small hymenoptera insects that lay their eggs in the eggs of the moth, leaf rollers, scoops and other insects harmful to the garden. These parasites are suitable for controlling the apple and plum moth. The garden is populated with trichograms at the rate of 150-200 thousand individuals per 1 hectare of the garden. This process is carried out in 3 stages: the first stage - during the period of mass laying of eggs by the moth, and the next two - after five days.


In gardens in which trichogramma is used, short-term pesticides are used against other pests - aphids, ticks, etc., and not earlier than 4-5 days after the release of trichogramma. In addition, it should be noted that in the conditions of areas with a harsh climate, the use of trichograms does not always give noticeable success. This problem requires further production testing.

Not only insects can be useful for the garden, but microorganisms. At the moment, entobacterin-3 is widely used to combat the caterpillars of harmful butterflies, boverin to combat the codling moth and other insects, and dendrobacillin, which destroys silkworm caterpillars. These bacterial preparations are relatively harmless to humans, animals, beneficial insects for the garden and plants. The effect of the use of drugs increases when they are used with small doses of pesticides.


Other animals and insects

Hedgehogs and shrews are getting smaller. The remains of crushed hedgehogs lie on highways. These night travelers, falling into the beam of car headlights, no longer leave it, stopping in indecision, or curling up in a ball right on the road. But where can a pitiful thorny calf withstand the multi-ton weight of an oncoming wheel? In addition to dogs and cats, birds, squirrels and other small animals perish on the roads. Somewhere in Europe, special viaducts were made on the migration routes of ungulates, and for small creatures under the roadbed, at some intervals, tunnels of pipes were laid through which they migrate without going out onto the highway.

The treatment of garden and garden plants with pesticides leaves the gardener and gardener alone with other alien pests, while the population of predatory insects is slowly recovering. The bio-grower provides predators with all kinds of shelter in the form of mulch, a pile of brushwood or dry grass, an old flower pot, upside down.

The use of pesticides against harmful insects is killing and beneficial. And the person himself receives contaminated products, which will affect his health, and the imbalance of the insect world is moving towards an increase in the presence of pests that adapt to each new generation of insecticides. The pesticides used in the middle of the last century, the notorious DDT, for example, are stable in the external environment. Their traces are found in the liver of marine fish, chinstrap penguins. And the massive fascination with pesticides. mineral fertilizers in agriculture and in amateur gardening has changed the biocenosis of local water bodies, where spring and storm flows, groundwater are blown away from fields and vegetable gardens.

Forests, meadows, floodplains, and a coastal zone are allocated for individual construction. Cottage settlements around large cities are mushrooming, devouring recreational areas from townspeople with less affluence. Previously accessible places for mass recreation are becoming private property. But the saddest thing is that the habitat for the wild inhabitants of the Earth is shrinking, while the number of dead villages is not diminishing. With modern communication and transport capabilities, it would be possible to return to life the former habitats and life activities of a person, and not to sculpt infinitely suburbs, depriving nature of the opportunity for self-recovery and providing mankind with suitable conditions for its living environment on Earth.

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