Useful properties of tomatoes. History of tomatoes. Tomato varieties and hybrids

Useful properties of tomatoes. History of tomatoes. Tomato varieties and hybrids

A crimson treasure trove of vitamins. Part 1


Useful properties of tomatoes

As a rule, when a garden plot is purchased, one of the first structures that most gardeners immediately erect are various designs of greenhouses. And they are intended mainly for growing the most popular vegetable - tomato.

Crimson delicious a tomato - a real piggy bank of vitamins and other substances. 100 grams of these fruits contain almost the daily rate of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). And some varieties of tomatoes, in terms of the content of this valuable vitamin, can even be equated to lemons. Tomatoes contain an abundance of carotene, there are vitamins PP, or niacin, B1, B2, pantothenic acid, peridoxin, biotin, folic acid. Their fruits contain proteins, enzymes, amino acids, mono- and oligosaccharides (fructose, raffinose, verbascose, sucrose), as well as polysaccharides (fiber and pectin substances).

Among other substances, attention is drawn to the high content of carotenoids, organic acids (citric, malic, oxalic, succinic, tartaric, palmitic, stearic, linoleic, coumaric, coffee, ferulic).

In addition, anthocyanins (glycosides, sterols) are found in fruits.

Leaves and unripe fruits contain glycoalkoloids (tomato, tomatidine, etc.). The leaves contain essential oil. In developing fruits, volatile alcohols and aldehydes have been identified, which determine the aroma of tomatoes. Tomatoes are rich in mineral salts of potassium, magnesium, etc. Ripe fruits contain a lot of easily assimilable salts of iron, which plays an important role in hematopoiesis.

In terms of iron content, tomatoes are several times higher than chicken meat, fish products, milk and are very useful for anemia. Tomatoes contain a number of microelements (copper, zinc, iodine, etc.), which have a beneficial effect on the general condition of the body. It was found that there is very little oxalic acid in tomatoes and, as previously assumed, it does not have a harmful effect on salt metabolism. So, in them, in comparison with green salad, oxalic acid is 6 times less, with spinach - 64 times, with rhubarb - 50 times, with potatoes - 10 times.

The high dietary benefits of tomatoes are now widely recognized and are widely recommended for people of all ages. Especially useful for children tomato juice with the addition of lemon and honey. Tomato juice, according to some doctors, has a beneficial effect on the condition of patients with hypertension, its regular use prevents the appearance of glaucoma and cures erysipelas. Certain Western European doctors consider the oil in which tomatoes were fried to be an excellent remedy for burns and scabies, moreover, they find it valuable to ensure good sleep.

Doctors often prescribe tomatoes and their juice to patients with various metabolic disorders, diseases of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract and obese people. This is understandable, since tomatoes enhance the functions of the digestive glands, have a beneficial effect on the liver, and have a general strengthening and bactericidal effect on the body. Tomatoes have strong phytoncidal properties. Juice, and especially pounded fruits (in the form of gruel), are destructive for some microbes and are successfully used in medical practice to treat purulent wounds and ulcers.

Tomatoes are eaten in different forms, but it is most useful to eat them fresh. There are more than 100 ways of their culinary processing at home. Salads are prepared from fresh fruits, in addition, they are salted, pickled, canned, stuffed, fried, added to first courses, and they are used as side dishes for second courses. Tomato juice is very common - a delicious, thirst-quenching nutritious drink, one glass of which contains half the dose of carotene and vitamin C a person needs per day. The Institute of Nutrition recommends that an adult consume at least 16.2 kg of tomatoes per year.

History of tomatoes

To be able to properly grow tomatoes, you need to know what this plant is, where it comes from, what are its natural biological properties, the requirements for the basic living conditions - light, heat, moisture and nutrients.

The homeland of tomatoes is tropical countries, they were grown by the ancient peoples inhabiting Peru and Mexico, called "tomatl"... Subsequently, the French gave the plant such a poetic name as "pom d'amore", ie cupid apple, the Italians called it "pomod'aro" - Golden Apple.

Now these plants are known to everyone as "tomatoes" and "tomatoes. "

In Russia, according to Academician D.D.Brezhnev, tomatoes began to be grown in the south in the 18th century, but in the Northwest they were first cultivated only at the end of the 19th century. Now it is the main greenhouse culture of our St. Petersburg gardeners.

I must say that the tomato that we have now in culture only vaguely resembles its ancestor, which can still be found in Peru, Mexico, the Canary and Philippine Islands, on uncultivated lands. These are plants with small berries no larger than currants, cherries, tasteless or completely inedible fruits, leaves and stems with a pungent unpleasant odor.

About varieties and hybrids of tomatoes

Tomato cultivars are annual herbaceous plants of the Solanaceae family. They differ in morphological characteristics and economic qualities.

Depending on the duration of the growing season (in days) from germination to the first harvest, tomato varieties are divided into early ripening (100-115), mid-ripening (115-125) and late-ripening (125-130). By the nature of the bush, tomato varieties are divided into branching, determinant and standard.

Branching (indeterminate) varieties form powerful lateral shoots from the axils of all leaves of the main stem. Side shoots of the first order give stepchildren of the second, third and fourth orders. As a result, a large bush is formed. In greenhouse conditions, such varieties can bear fruit for more than 16 months, while forming lateral axes of the 20th order and the same number of tiers of inflorescences. The height of the bush can reach 5 m. Branching varieties (lianas) form new lateral shoots, bloom and form fruits until autumn frosts.

When cultivated in greenhouses, a lot of manual labor is required to pinch such varieties and tie them to supports. These include the well-known Bull's Heart variety and the multi-fruited plum-like varieties - Plum, Humbert and others for whole-fruited canning.

In recent years, a lot of heterotic F1 hybrids of indeterminate type have appeared, tested at the variety plots of the Leningrad region.

Among them, of interest for gardeners of the Leningrad region are F1 hybrids Swallow, Strizh, Grain, Carlson, Rianto, Alena, Tortila, Lady, Romatos, Raisa, Resento, Dzhitana, Instinct, Monica, Tsypa, Pharaoh, Vladimir, etc.

Determinant - self-limiting growth, weakly branching varieties. Lateral shoots (stepchildren) in them are formed only in the leaf axils of the lower part of the main shoot and quickly finish branching. The bush is small in size with damping growth. Fruiting is concentrated mainly on the first 2-3 inflorescences. Almost all fruits ripen on plants, but in our conditions they require pinching.

The best varieties and hybrids in this group for our conditions are the following varieties: Gruntovy Gribovskiy, Talalikhin, Zoren, Grotto, Tambovskiy productive, Siberian early ripening, Kometa, Garant, Golubka, Tsarskoselskiy early, Northern lights, Lyana; F1 hybrids: Red Arrow, Energo, Ilyich, Merchant, Lady, Viscount, Harlequin, Flamingo, Lyalafa.

More productive and disease resistant are F1 hybrids with a semi-determinant bush (hybrids between indeterminate and determinant forms): Express, Gamayun, Portland, Crane, Dandelion, Blagovest, Mashenka, Dessert pink.

Standard varieties, being determinant, form lateral shoots of only 1-2 orders of magnitude. The stem grows vertically without the need for a garter or pinch. It is better to grow varieties of this group in the open field and under the simplest film shelters, and you can successfully get a harvest, including ripe fruits. Proven in our conditions are: Nevsky, Baltic, Alpatieva 905, Sever, Reserve, Yantarny, Argo, Otradny, Yubileiny VIR, Yagodka, Ranetochka, Little Prince, Kolibri, Antoshka, etc.

In recent years, many amateur varieties have emerged. They are interesting, as they represent a variety of tomato species in shape, size, fruit color, however, the above varieties and hybrids are more productive and resistant to the most common diseases.

Read the second part: What is a tomato plant and what does it like →

N. Lapikov,
Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
All-Union Research Institute of Plant Industry named after V.I. N. I. Vavilova


What are the benefits of tomatoes

The health benefits of tomatoes are that their properties, with moderate consumption of vegetables in food, help to normalize the functioning of organs and systems in the human body.

Digestion

For those who are very fond of meat products, doctors advise using tomatoes to speed up digestion. Vegetables help reduce the discomfort associated with eating heavy meats and minimize fermentation in the digestive tract.

Red tomato fruits are necessary for people with low acidity levels to increase the activity of the gastric system.

Tomato pulp starts the process of activating the secretion of gastric juice in the body, which, together with dietary fiber, increases intestinal peristalsis and acts as a means of preventing colitis.

Circulatory system

The beneficial properties of vegetables that can thin the blood are used to prevent varicose veins, atherosclerosis and thrombophlebitis. Eating tomatoes regularly can lower blood cholesterol levels and eliminate plaque build-up on the walls of blood vessels. Vegetables are indicated for existing angina pectoris and hypertension.

A heart

Tomatoes are good for the heart muscle

Magnesium with potassium and atrium with iron, which are part of fresh vegetables, which are useful for the human body, normalize and restore the correct functioning of the heart and are indicated for the prevention of pathologies in the functioning of the heart muscle.

Immunity

The ascorbic acid present in the beneficial composition of tomato fruits helps to resist viral infections, which increases immunity and is necessary for the prevention of colds in the off-season. Eating them regularly for those who are often sick can help reduce the risk of respiratory disease.

Tatiana Orlova (Candidate of Agricultural Sciences):

In order to get the daily intake of vitamin C, you need to eat 300 g of tomatoes per day, vitamin A - 50 g of tomato, vitamin B1 - 150 g of fresh tomatoes.

Hemoglobin

The iron-containing component present in a healthy tomato, with constant consumption of the vegetable, maintains the level of hemoglobin at the proper level, improving the process of producing red blood cells and acting as a prophylactic agent against anemia.

Metabolism

The tomato culture has the ability to enhance metabolism and break down fat cells. It is for this reason that vegetables are often the main element in the diet for weight loss. Low-calorie tomato fruits are recommended for inclusion in the diet of people with impaired metabolism, which led to the appearance of extra pounds. The benefits of tomatoes for weight loss are also due to the fact that they activate metabolism to remove excess fluid accumulated in the body, reducing weight.

Respiratory system

Frequent consumption of tomato fruits helps to remove toxic components and mucus accumulated during smoking from the respiratory tract.

Hepatic-renal system

Tomatoes, which have diuretic properties, help increase the drainage of bile compounds, reducing the effect on the liver and repairing liver tissue. The sodium contained in vegetables for the kidneys acts as a source of normalization of the salt balance, breaking down the neoplasms (stones and sand) present in the kidneys.

Cancer prevention

One of the useful components of tomatoes, lycopene, contained in a vegetable in a fairly large amount, is recognized by doctors as an effective means of preventing cancer of the digestive system and respiration.

Nervous system

Tomatoes will help get rid of irritability

There are benefits in tomatoes and for the central nervous system for the reason that vegetables contain potent antioxidants that activate regeneration processes in nerve cells.

In addition, regularly consumed tomato fruits bring the emotional background into a stable state, relieving irritability, relieving stress and having a calming effect.


What varieties are classified as early

First of all, you need to decide which varieties of tomatoes are early and ultra-early.

REFERENCE. Ripening time is the most important characteristic by which tomatoes are classified.

Early ripe tomatoes are usually called those that begin to bear fruit 90-95 (plus minus 10) days after the first shoots appear.

Ultra-early - those that give tomatoes as early as 2.5 months after germination of seedlings.

It is important to understand this: 80, 90, 95 days are indicative dates. Much depends on the summer resident himself, as well as weather conditions and what kind of care is carried out. With regular feeding in a good year, even early tomatoes can be harvested after 85 days.

And, conversely, if the tomatoes do not have enough light during growing, the year turned out to be dry or rainy, and the summer resident provides the plantings with poor care, then the tomatoes may ripen longer than the specified period.

The most important factors are, of course, heat and sunlight.

IMPORTANT! The ripening time is indicated on the back of the seed packet.


Growing

Orange tomatoes should be grown in seedlings. It must be used both for the further cultivation of the selected varieties in the greenhouse, and for the preparation of seedlings planted on open ground. Seeds of most varieties must be sown 55 days before planting in a permanent growth site. In order for the culture to sprout faster, you need to carefully select seed material for further work, properly process the seeds using growth accelerators and plant them in pre-prepared soil. This contributes to a higher germination of seed material, and also helps prevent the development of various diseases of tomatoes.

In the open field

Work with seedlings for open ground begins in mid-March. The gardener needs to do the following to get healthy shrubs:

  • Properly prepare the seeds for planting. The inoculum of this culture must be treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then soaked overnight in a solution of a growth stimulator.
  • To grow a crop, you can take ordinary garden soil.... It should be treated with Fundazole solution. After that, small grooves for the seeds should be made on the ground.
  • The seed itself must be sown in large pots with soil at intervals of 2-3 cm (since orange varieties have a high germination capacity). You need to deepen the seeds by 1 cm.After sowing, the soil in the boxes must be well moistened and covered with glass or foil.
  • As soon as the first shoots appear from the ground, the film must be removed and the seedlings must be placed in a well-lit place. It is necessary to ensure that the temperature in this place does not drop below 25 degrees.
  • After the plants have two real leaves, they need to be planted in separate containers. Seedlings need to be regularly watered. Before planting on open ground, the plants must be hardened by taking the boxes with seedlings outside for several hours every day.

You can read about how often to water tomatoes here.

When picking seedlings, it is recommended to pinch the central root of the plant. This allows the formation of a more branched and strong root system of the hybrids.

You can learn more about what tomato picking is here.

In mid or late May, after the end of the frost, the plants can be transplanted onto the ground. Plants are planted in holes, the distance between which is at least 50 cm. After that, the tomatoes are watered abundantly, the indeterminate varieties must be tied to the trellis.

In the future, the culture is provided with such care:

  • regular watering (at least once every 4 days)
  • fertilizing with mineral fertilizers 2 times during the flowering period and 2 times during the growing season
  • regular weeding and loosening of the soil.

Plants should be watered at the root. Care must be taken so that moisture does not get on the leaves, otherwise burns may form on them.

In greenhouses

Tomato bushes can be transplanted into the greenhouse at the beginning of May, since they are not afraid of frosts here. From the first days, the culture needs to be watered. The optimum temperature for tomatoes is from +20 to +25 degrees, the humidity in the greenhouse should be at 70%, otherwise the plants may start to rot. To prevent the tomatoes from cracking, it is necessary to monitor the level of soil moisture. The soil should never dry out. Top dressing also needs to be carried out 4 times per season, using ready-made mineral fertilizers for it. And do not forget about the garter of tomatoes, and do it in time to preserve part of the harvest.

You can correctly read about how to tie tomatoes in a greenhouse in this material.

During the flowering period, the greenhouse should be regularly ventilated. This contributes to pollination of the flowers.


Description and characteristics of the variety

Relic tomato The tomato queen belongs to the category of indeterminants, it is distinguished by its rapid growth. Bushes grow vigorous and strong. Growing is possible in open and sheltered beds.

What you need to know about the variety:

  • height of shoots 1.7-1.9 m
  • indeterminate growth type
  • simple inflorescences
  • 1st bunch after 8-9 leaves
  • all subsequent brushes are formed after 1-2 leaves.

Tomatoes are large in size, attractive in color, and have a pleasant taste. They are widely used in the home kitchen in the summer, for the preparation of blanks, are valued for their carotene, vitamin, antioxidant composition.

  • average weight 300-500 g
  • the largest fruits weigh 0.8-1 kg
  • taste with fruity notes
  • sugary pulp
  • staining yellow-orange with red strokes
  • few seeds
  • firm skin
  • the ribbing is weak.


Tomatoes for growing in any conditions

There are time-tested best varieties of yellow tomatoes, reviews of which are always positive, despite the growing method.

These include "Persimmon" - a medium early ripening period, determinant type, reaching a height of 1 m. Even in a short summer with difficult weather conditions, it succeeds in open ground. Moreover, an excellent combination of yield and good taste - sweet, without acid - is noted by people who are indifferent to yellow tomatoes.

The medium-late indeterminate variety "Zolotaya Rybka", recommended for growing in a greenhouse, stands out for its good yields, appearance and taste. Tall bushes are hung with clusters of bright orange dense sweet "icicles", dense, suitable for salads and for pickling.

To see for yourself the excellent taste of yellow tomatoes, you can start with early ripening, low-growing varieties that are easy to care for, do not require pinching and garters. For example, very productive varieties "Golden Cup" with a cream weight of up to 150 grams.

Shrub "Zero" with orange fruits of excellent taste, weighing from 100 to 200 grams, can be grown in a seedless way. Tomatoes appear at the same time and have time to ripen even in a short summer.

Based on the experience of gardeners from different regions, taking into account the climatic conditions of their area and the characteristics of the summer cottage, giving preference to zoned varieties, choosing the best yellow tomatoes for yourself will not be difficult. It remains only to try to grow them in order to become a fan of this magnificent vegetable.


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