Fruit and berry plants
In the middle of autumn, after the harvest, when cold weather sets in, gardeners begin work that will provide raspberries with a good winter and contribute to the formation of a high yield of berries in the next season. They consist of pruning bushes, disposing of plant debris, cultivating the soil and applying fertilizers to it.
We will tell you how to properly care for a raspberry after the growing season is over in this article.
Preparing raspberries for winter
If raspberries were mulched with straw in the spring, then their remnants in the fall are raked up and burned or put in a compost heap. Without removing the straw, you will create conditions for mice and harmful insects to winter in the mulch. The soil around the bushes and in the aisles is carefully dug to a shallow depth so as not to damage the raspberry roots. At the same time, fertilizers are applied.
In the photo: Preparing the soil for wintering raspberries
In the fall, different methods are used to feed raspberries. For example, unripe manure is laid around the bushes, which will not only feed the raspberry tree for several years, but also warm the root system of the bushes in the winter cold. The manure can be replaced with compost of fallen leaves and weeds, to which a little peat and poultry manure should be added. A solution of bird droppings, which is abundantly sprayed on bushes, is also useful for raspberries.
Peat does not contain many nutrients, but its introduction into the soil improves its structure and helps to increase the yield of raspberries.
Organic fertilizers are applied to the raspberry soil once every two years in a queue with fertilizing with mineral complexes. In autumn, potash fertilizers and phosphates are applied to the soil under the bushes, spending about 40 g of potassium salt and 60 g of superphosphate per bush: grooves are made along the row at a distance of 30 cm from the bush, granular fertilizers are added to them, after which the trench is sealed and watered.
Nitrogen is not brought in before winter!
In the photo: Feeding raspberries
One of the ways to improve the structure of the soil and at the same time to feed the plants is to grow siderates in the raspberry field. Mustard, lupine or vetch are sown between the rows of raspberries, and before the onset of frost, these plants are mowed and shallowly buried in the ground.
In the photo: We bury green manure
Raspberry shoots live for 2 years, then they dry out, and young shoots grow from the roots. The life cycle of raspberry shoots determines the rules for pruning. All two-year-old shoots that have fruited are cut off at the root. The same is done with weak, thickening bush, diseased or pest-infected shoots, regardless of their age. On average, a raspberry bush should have 7 strong and healthy shoots. Too long tops, protruding strongly above the outlines of the bush, are shortened.
In the photo: Pruning raspberries
Together with pruning, thinning of the raspberry tree is also carried out, leaving a distance between the bushes of about half a meter. Excavated bushes are used for grafting or increasing the size of the plantation. Pruning is done after harvest, finishing before the onset of cold weather.
Some features have the pruning of black raspberries, which gives side shoots that need to be shortened to 50 cm: this makes it easier to care for the bush, and its yield increases significantly.
Shelter bushes for the winter
Before the onset of frost, the raspberry stems are tied, bent to the ground and fixed in such a position that they do not straighten up. One bush, bending down, is applied to an already laid and fixed bush. To prevent the plants from freezing in winter, the snow must completely cover the bushes. The procedure requires strict deadlines: if you do it too early, the bushes will start to rot, and at subzero temperatures, their branches become fragile and break. Therefore, preparation for shelter begins after the foliage has completely fallen off.
In the photo: Cooking raspberries for shelter
Thick snow cover reliably protects raspberries from freezing. But sometimes it is required to carry out snow retention measures. To do this, create various structures that are covered with plywood or polycarbonate, and in winter, snow is thrown to the raspberries by hand. In the spring, the structure is dismantled, but there is no need to rush to dismantle it: raspberries can be hit by suddenly returning frosts. In addition, you need to give the plants time to adapt.
In the photo: Covering the raspberry bushes
They do not forget about raspberries in winter: they monitor the snow shelter and loosen the snow crust that appears after the thaws, which disrupts the air circulation.
We offer you a detailed video on how to prepare a raspberry tree for winter in a region with a cool climate:
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Pink
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
- Information about Berry Crops
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Berry bushes
What processing does raspberry go through and how is it prepared for winter and pruning?
In order for raspberries to bear fruit well and delight the gardener with delicious berries, they need some care. Especially in autumn, it is important to take care of providing the necessary conditions for wintering. How to prepare raspberries for the winter - pruning, feeding, shelter - will be described in this article.
Caring for lilies in the fall and preparing for winter - the main steps
Pre-winter preparation of lilies begins long before the onset of the first frost.
When caring for lilies in the fall and preparing for winter, you need to perform several activities:
- Cutting flowers is done in two steps.
- Weeding the flower garden and cleaning up broken stems, fallen leaves and old mulching material from the flower bed.
- Preventive treatment of flower beds and soil from fungal infections.
- Feeding plants with complex mineral fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium.
- Covering beds or digging up lily bulbs and storing them properly until spring planting.
If necessary, it is during the pre-winter preparation that the lily bulbs can be divided, propagated or transplanted to another place.
After finishing flowering and cutting off the remaining flowers, you need to completely stop watering the lily. This protects the plant from pathogens of fungal diseases, helps the bulbs to "gain" strength and plunge into a state of dormancy.
At the same time, you need to feed the lilies. Depending on the region, this can be done in the last days of August or the first decade of September. First, the beds should be weeded and loosened, after which fertilizers should be applied - potassium sulfate, superphosphate, granular or complex mineral fertilizers for bulbous crops.
Top dressing should contain potassium and phosphorus. From organic matter, ash can be used. The last time the fertilizer is applied is before the flowers are sheltered. For this purpose, it is better to use compost, humus or dry organic fertilizing.
Autumn pruning of lilies
In preparation for winter, pruning of lilies is carried out in several stages. After the end of flowering, the seed boxes are cut. This contributes to better maturation of the bulbs and the strengthening of the plant.
Pre-winter pruning of lilies is carried out before the first frosts, at the end of September or in the first days of October, when the stems and foliage will fade and wither. Drying of the green part of the plant indicates that the formation of the bulbs is over and they can be prepared for wintering.
How to prune a lily:
- a sharp knife or garden pruner is used to trim dry stems
- cut shoots at a height of 12-16 cm from the ground
- it is advisable to cut the stem at an angle of 45 °.
Withered and withered leaves and stems of a lily cannot be left without pruning until spring, even if the plant hibernates in the open field.
Left foliage and shoots often become a source of fusarium and other dangerous diseases. In addition, uncut leaves and stems are an excellent wintering place for insect pests.
Loosening the flower bed and shelter
Flower beds should be cleaned of residues of plant debris, used mulch, fallen leaves and weeded. It is advisable to weed the flower beds twice - immediately after cutting and immediately before the flowers are sheltered.
The use of shelters depends on the type of lily. It is enough to mulch Asian species with a dense layer of sawdust, pine needles or peat. Before this, the plants are fed with compost or rotted humus.
Varieties with low frost resistance are insulated with agrofibre or spruce branches. For reliable protection from frost, lilies are covered with a layer of pine or spruce branches, and on top they are insulated with spunbond or other non-woven material.
Do I need to dig lilies for the winter
Whether it is necessary to dig up lilies for the winter depends on their variety and the climatic characteristics of the region. Some types of flowers even tolerate frosts down to -20 ° C. But when growing a flower in the Urals, Siberia or the northwestern part of the country, you cannot do without digging out the bulbs.
You need to dig up lilies, which are characterized by low frost resistance and rare, exotic varieties. Also, this method of wintering is preferable for flowers grown in lowlands and often flooded areas. Their bulbs absorb excess moisture and the slightest frost leads to the death of the lily.
The dug out bulbs must be placed in boxes with a mixture of sawdust and peat. A cool room with an air temperature of +7 to + 10 ° C and a humidity of no higher than 70% is suitable for wintering lilies.
Taking care of your garden flowers before winter is very important. With proper care for lilies in the fall and preparation for winter, existing plants can be preserved and strengthened. At the same time, get a lot of new, healthy and blooming lilies for the next season.
Not many gardeners know that the raspberry bush needs to be replanted to a new location every four years, or at least once every five years. The fact is that the berry bush depletes the soil and does not bear fruit well. New soil is a stimulus for the growth of new shoots. As a result, we get a good harvest. For this reason, we recommend that the owners of the bush do not neglect this procedure and do not be lazy to carry out this procedure.
Transplanting raspberries is allowed both in spring and autumn or summer. The best option for territories located in the Moscow region is from late September to early October. This is due to the fact that the bush still needs to have time to take root before the onset of cold weather, and this takes about a month. The beginning of November is the deadline for a raspberry transplant, but these days are suitable only for those who live in the south.
Do not forget that raspberries require a lot of light (but not direct sunlight) and protection from wind and drafts. Guided by these considerations, you should select a place on the site for planting. Usually summer residents and gardeners choose a place near the fence.
Raspberries can be transplanted to the place where green manure, legumes or garlic previously grew. Don't plant raspberries after potatoes or strawberries. Do not plant raspberries next to blackberries - they will quarrel. Friends of raspberries are turnips, tansy and calendula - they protect the berry from insects such as moths, flies, ants and other pests.
3. Features of caring for raspberries in the fall and their preparation for winter in the Moscow region (in detail)
In order for raspberries to develop correctly and give good fruits in summer, in the fall it is necessary to carry out such procedures as pruning, feeding the plant, fighting diseases and pests, as well as bending and mulching the shoots.
Many novice gardeners are interested in the answer to the question of why and for what to prune raspberries. The fact is that if you cut the raspberries correctly in the fall, then they will bear fruit better in gratitude. There are also a number of other reasons. Raspberries, which were cut in the fall, have larger berries. Also, after pruning, raspberry bushes endure the winter cold season more easily, have a more aesthetic appearance and are well illuminated by the sun.
Timing of pruning raspberries
Raspberries are best trimmed in August or September. Some believe that the manipulation should be postponed until the onset of cold weather. This extremely incorrect judgment harms the health of the plant: the later the plant is cut, the more pests parasitize on it, and the diseases begin to actively develop. As a result, during the winter cold, the plant may completely die. Be sensible and don't delay pruning until the very last moment. The ideal option is to pick the last berries and cut them off.
How to trim
To properly trim raspberries, you need to choose the right tool. The wrong choice of tool can cause irreparable harm to the health of your plant.
A pruner should be used to trim raspberries. Chinese and domestic models do not suit us. For their production, low-quality steel is used, as a result, the tool quickly becomes blunt and it is inconvenient to use it: the muscles of the hands get tired and there is a danger of injury.
A better option is a Soviet-made pruner, you can find it at a flea market or at auctions. An easier but expensive option is to find a website for gardeners and gardeners, choose a model of Dutch, German or English manufacturers, order and wait for delivery. Yes, it requires material investment, but it is worth the amount. You should be aware that you are not throwing money away, but investing it in your health.
What else is needed to carry out the pruning procedure?
Don't forget garden mittens. They will protect you from injuries and scratches. Use a wire to tie the whips to the ground. Stock up on thick nylon thread for plant garters.
Top dressing and fertilization of raspberries in the fall
After pruning, it is recommended to feed the raspberry tree with phosphorus and potash fertilizers. This is done in order to increase the frost resistance, as well as the immunity of the plant. You can use both organic fertilizers (manure, peat, compost or bird droppings) and mineral fertilizers (potassium salt). The use of green manure (vecooves, annual lupine or mustard) is also acceptable.
In order for fertilizers to bring maximum benefit, they must be properly processed.
First you need to remove and burn debris and raspberry trimmings, and pierce the weeds. The next step is to remove the fallen leaves and mulch. Then we apply fertilizers, sprinkle with earth and water.
When preparing a raspberry bush for wintering, it is very important to neutralize pests in advance. So, for example, the crimson gall midge lays eggs in the stem, which brings irreparable damage to the plant. These stems need to be cut and cut. If this procedure is not carried out on time, the plant will die.
Also, in the fight against pests, it is permissible to use special preparations. To get rid of gall midges, Chlorophos is used, Alatar and Kemifos serve as protection against the weevil, Colloidal sulfur saves from the spider mite, Decis and Confidor are the means to get rid of the raspberry beetle, Spark copes with the raspberry kidney moth, Aktelika fights the stem fly, for prevention spray the plant with Spark.
Mulching and bending shoots
In order for the plant to successfully endure the period of winter cold, it is necessary to carry out the mulching procedure - a surface cover of the soil. Leaves, peat or straw are ideal for this. Sawdust from coniferous trees will not work for us: they oxidize the soil, and raspberries do not like this.
It is also recommended to carry out the procedure for bending the shoots. Usually, this manipulation is carried out after the removal of the leaves and pruning.The optimal bending height is about forty centimeters. The height level is dictated by the fact that in this case the snow will completely cover the shoots.
The procedure for bending shoots, or garters, is not necessary for all varieties of raspberries. No garter is required for such varieties of raspberries as Spirina white, Balsam, Ruby Bulgarian, Coral and Modest.
The nuances of caring for different varieties / types
Separately, I would like to say a few words about the peculiarities of caring for remontant varieties of raspberries.
Remontant varieties of raspberries include those that bear fruit twice a year. At the moment, this group has about thirty different varieties. On the territory of the Moscow region, experts advise to grow "Eurasia", "Hercules" and "Bryansk Divo".
In representatives of this group of varieties, young shoots grow every year from the root of the plant. The upper part, short, gave fruit, dries out very quickly. Such features dictate their own rules of approach to plant care.
Firstly, only one-year shoots should be left during pruning. If you leave the stems older, this will lead to a decrease in the yield in the next season. This pruning is carried out in November, waiting for the moment until the leaves are completely frozen.
Secondly, as you understand, the preparation of the raspberry tree for winter is not limited to one pruning. Caring for remontant raspberry varieties begins in the summer and ends only in the winter.
Fertilizing of remontant raspberry varieties should be carried out throughout the summer and autumn periods. Watering must be carried out before the onset of the first winter frost. Do not feel sorry for the water - it should be enough for the coming months, but do not drown your plants, please. In general, approach this wisely and carefully. Do not forget to loosen the soil after watering, turning the soil layers. After the end of the work, the mulching procedure is mandatory. It is necessary to mulch with a layer of humus or manure. The height must be at least 10cm.
Recently, the black strawberry variety has become more and more popular. Do not plant it next to red, as it will not do them any good.
Now that we have sorted out all the procedures for caring for raspberries in the fall, I propose to answer the question of what will happen if you do not carry out any manipulation from this list. The answer is obvious: a neat raspberry bush without pruning will turn into dense wild thickets, in the absence of feeding and fertilization it will be much more difficult for the plant to survive the winter frosts, pests and diseases (if not dealt with) will weaken the immune system, in this situation mulching and bending of the shoots will be useless.
Dear summer residents, do not be indifferent to your plants. Carry out all the procedures for caring for the raspberry bush in the fall. In this case, an amazing healthy tasty harvest will await you in the summer.
Features of preparing raspberries for winter
Naturally, raspberries of any varieties (even frost-resistant ones) tolerate winter more favorably under snow cover. Experienced gardeners warn that in severe frosts, flower buds that are not protected by a shelter can freeze out.
After the measures taken to care for raspberries in the fall, preparation for winter is the next stage. Before covering work, you should:
- leaves preserved on the branches are carefully cut
- fallen leaves are carefully scooped out and burned.
Some summer residents do not particularly bother with the procedure - they simply tilt the bush to the ground and press down the stems with boards, slate. This method cannot be called universal, since branches are not committed reliably.
It is recommended to use special covering cloths (spunbond, lutrasil). When using the material, its edges are fixed on the ground (you can simply dig in or press down with heavy objects).
If there is no way to specifically cover the raspberries with something, it is recommended to at least fix the bushes at a low height. To do this, a wire or rope is pulled near the rows of raspberries, at a distance of 20-30 cm from the ground and raspberry stalks are tied to them.
In this position, the branches will be covered with snow and will calmly overwinter.
If there is usually little snowfall in winter or strong winds are frequent, a snow fence should be built. It can be sheets of polycarbonate, slate, plywood. Some summer residents cover the soil with straw and cut grass. The mulch will protect the raspberry root system.
Useful video about preparing raspberries for winter from the Sadovaya Head channel:
Bending raspberry stalks to the ground
Competent preparation of raspberries for wintering involves one of the main stages - bending raspberry stems to the ground. To do this, the shrub is tied in bunches, and then tilted so that its height is no more than 40 cm. After that, the bushes must be fixed at the lower level of wire or rope, trellises or metal arcs. There is one trick: if the bushes are planted in rows, you can sequentially tie one to the next to the end of the row. The main condition is to create a tilted plant height at which the crop will be completely covered with snow in winter.
When to start preparing daylilies for winter
Regardless of the specifics of the variety, in each region of Russia, daylilies are prepared for winter at a certain time. So the plants tolerate cold better and bloom profusely.
Daylilies are frost-resistant perennials, so in the south of the country they do not need additional shelter and special preparation. It is enough to cut off the leaves. This must be done before the cold weather, so that a new leaf cover does not have time to grow.
In the middle lane and the Moscow region, the preparation of daylilies for winter begins in mid-October and continues until November. You can determine a more accurate date by weather conditions. When the temperature drops below 0 ° C, it's time to get to work.
In Siberia, daylilies are recommended to be dug, but if this is not possible, then preparations for winter begin when the average daily temperature drops below 3 ° C. However, it should be borne in mind that strong and prolonged frosts can destroy even the most winter-hardy perennial varieties.
In the Urals, winter is long, so it is better to prepare daylilies in early October. Perennials need a good multi-layer shelter.
There is one more rule that you can follow when preparing daylilies for winter. All procedures must be completed a week before the expected frost, regardless of the variety and type of perennial.
Lavender can die if:
- water it abundantly in the fall
- feed the bushes with nitrogen fertilizers
- crop crop incorrectly (too long or too short)
- cut lavender in late autumn - the perennial will not have time to heal wounds and recover
- open it too early in the spring or remove the mulch.
Avoid these mistakes and your beautiful lavender will bloom and smell all summer long!