Growing hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis)

Growing hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis)

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) of the Lamiaceae family is an evergreen shrub with a tap-woody branched root and numerous erect branched stems up to 80 cm high.Lanceolate or linear-lanceolate leaves, small, 2-4 cm long and 0.5-1 cm wide, pointed at the apex , with slightly curved edges, almost sessile. Inflorescences are often one-sided. The flowers are small, with a violet-blue or blue, rarely pink or white corolla. Fruits are dark brown nuts.

Spread

Homeland of hyssop Southern Europe and Western Asia. In our country, it is common in the Caucasus and in the foothills of Altai. Hyssop is successfully grown in central Russia. This culture grows well at home.

Using hyssop

Hyssop is a well-known essential oil plant widely used in perfumery and medicine. Some varieties of processed cheese are flavored with it. Lovers add hyssop to the curd. You can also add hyssop when brewing tea and when pickling cucumbers and tomatoes.

Hyssop is one of the oldest medicinal plants. In folk medicine, it is used for diseases of the upper respiratory tract, bronchial asthma, gastrointestinal diseases, angina pectoris. An infusion and decoction of hyssop is used for washing the eyes, rinsing the mouth and throat, and for compresses.

As an ornamental plant, hyssop is suitable for low curbs (free-growing and molded). Hyssop looks great in any flower gardens and on alpine slides.

Hyssop is an excellent melliferous plant.

Hyssop growing conditions

Hyssop is light and moisture-loving, drought-resistant, cold-hardy and winter-hardy. Grows well on light calcareous and moderately moist soils.

Care

After flowering, it is necessary to cut the peduncles. If the hyssop grows in the form of a trimmed border, then it is subjected to a haircut (molding) several times over the summer. It is necessary to cover with snow for the winter.

Reproduction

By cuttings, dividing the bush and seeds.

A. Kopysov,
gardener


Types and varieties of hyssop

Previously, botanical literature included about 50 species of hyssop. Today, the number of the plant in official scientific sources is only seven varieties.

Hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis)

The shoots of hyssop, which are hard to the touch, are woven into a dense shrub crown at a height of 20 to 80 cm. Over time, the roots and the lower part of the shoots become gritty and harden. The top of the shoots is smooth or has a short fleece layer. Lanceolate leaves are opposite and are characterized by a dark green color. In the middle or late summer, bright spikelets bloom from the axillary part of the apical foliage. A two-lipped corolla, surrounded by light green petals, is in the center of the bud along with the stamens. Tiny nuts ripen in early autumn in the place of faded spikelets.

Cretaceous hyssop (Hyssopus cretaceus)

The length of the shoots ranges from 20-50 cm. The bush is slightly oblong in shape. The origin of the name echoes the habitat of the hyssop. We are talking about chalk deposits, which form a fertile substrate necessary for the successful life of many plants. In summer, the tops of the shoots are decorated with small blue flowers that resemble spikelets. They exude a fragrance and attract insects from all over.

In addition to the named species, breeders managed to breed other decorative varieties that have already found their place in landscape design. The advantage of these varieties is the bright, prominent color of the inflorescences. These varieties include: Pink Flamingo, Hoarfrost, Accord, Amethyst and White Nikitsky.


Growing hyssop

Hyssop is very unpretentious, it does not require special care, feeding and watering. Even more - excessive fertilizing and moisturizing can damage it. Drought-resistant, frost-hardy, but withers in flooded and swampy areas. Prefers well-drained, loose, slightly alkaline soils. She has an extremely negative attitude towards shady places; it will show its full potential in the sun: it will be very fragrant and beautifully blooming.


Hyssop loves to be caressed by the sun

At a young age, especially in the first year after sowing, you need to carefully weed out the weeds so that they do not choke or shade the shoots. You can mulch the soil under young bushes until they have grown: later the hyssop itself will displace all weeds.

If you want a large number of spikelets in bloom, pinch the plant several times and it will branch out more. True, it will be less high.


Introduction of the thesis (part of the abstract) on the topic "Biological characteristics and agricultural technology of cultivation of common hyssop (hyssopus officinalis) in the conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals"

The urgency of the problem. In the conditions of the Trans-Urals, as in many regions of Siberia, under the influence of human activity, the ecological balance is largely disturbed. As a result, the number of many plant species growing in natural conditions is now sharply reduced and is in numbers bordering on complete extinction.

And this is despite the fact that many of them serve as valuable raw materials for the food and processing industry, without which it is impossible to produce various alcoholic beverages, soft drinks, canning the harvest of many types of vegetables. Among these crops, spicy aromatic plants are distinguished as a separate group. Almost all of them are widely used in home cooking, and many of them in the treatment of various and even serious diseases of humans and animals. To preserve the base for obtaining such valuable raw materials, it is necessary to find ways of growing these plants in artificial conditions. It is important not only to study the possibility of cultivating them in culture to obtain the required amount of plant raw materials, but also to preserve their valuable biochemical properties in new conditions of existence. It is equally important to find out the possibility of producing seeds of spicy plants under agricultural conditions.

Common hyssop is one of the valuable aromatic plants. The homeland of the hyssop is the Mediterranean. It is a perennial gingerbread shrub plant. Research into the biology of hyssop is of great importance, since this culture not only finds a wide variety of applications, but grows wild in different regions. Several species of these plants grow in natural conditions in Siberia. In the wild, hyssop is more common on stony soils, ravines. So, in the Tyumen region in natural growth, we find hyssop in the Zavodoukovsky district. four

For thousands of years, people have used hyssop to prepare various salads, meat and fish dishes, to improve the quality of infusions and tinctures, valuable wines and balsams. Rare church wine did without hyssop. Hyssop relieved fatigue from parishioners, improved their well-being after communion with wine in church. In the East and nowadays, hyssop is added to most famous fruit drinks. The world famous Chartreuse liqueurs and Strizhament liqueurs are made using hyssop. The hyssop plant has an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, wound healing, light stimulating, expectorant effect, and also helps to reduce excessive sweating, active metabolism, and excretion of toxins from the human body. Therefore, hyssop is widely used in medicine.

It should be noted that now this plant, which is extremely useful for humans, is almost on the verge of extinction in Western Siberia. Therefore, the study of its biology, the development of methods for cultivating and preserving hyssop in culture is of great national economic importance.

The purpose and objectives of the research. The purpose of this research is to develop methods of cultivation of common hyssop in the conditions of the Trans-Urals in culture, as well as to study the influence of the main agrotechnical methods of its cultivation on the size and quality of the vegetables and vegetable raw materials obtained for the food industry.

The research tasks included:

• study of the biological characteristics of hyssop

• determination of the influence of sowing schemes on the yield and quality of vegetable products

• study of the optimal doses of mineral fertilizers

• study of the content of useful biochemical compounds in hyssop plants cultivated in culture, and the establishment of the influence of agricultural practices on these indicators 5

Scientific novelty. For the first time in the conditions of the Northern Trans-Urals, a comprehensive study of the biological characteristics of common hyssop was carried out and the possibilities of cultivating it in culture were studied. For the first time in these conditions, the influence of agrotechnical methods of cultivation of hyssop on the yield and quality of vegetables and raw materials for the food industry was studied. Generalization of the results of our research allowed us to formulate the following provisions, which are novelty and are being defended:

1. The biological characteristics of hyssop have been studied and the possibility and expediency of cultivating it in culture in the conditions of the Trans-Urals for the production of vegetable products and raw materials for the food and pharmaceutical industries has been established.

2. Revealed the influence of sowing schemes on the size and quality of vegetables grown.

3. The influence of various doses of mineral fertilizers on the yield and quality of vegetables has been established.

4. An economic and bioenergy substantiation is given for the recommended agrotechnical methods of cultivation of hyssop in the conditions of the Trans-Urals.

The practical value of research. On the basis of the research carried out, important agrotechnical methods of cultivation of hyssop have been developed and recommended for production to obtain stable high-quality yields of vegetables and vegetable raw materials in the conditions of the Severnogs Trans-Urals.

Approbation of work. The main research results were reported at the International Scientific and Industrial Conferences in Alupgge, 1995, 1997, at the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference in Penza, 1998. The research results were reported at the International Symposium in Pushchino, 1997, at the Department of Vegetable Growing, Academic Council of the Agronomic Faculty of the Tyumen State Agricultural Academy, 1995-1999. 6

Publications. The main provisions of the dissertation were published in the materials of the International Scientific and Production Conference "Breeding, Ecology, Technology of Cultivation and Processing of Non-traditional Plants", Alushta (1995) of the International Scientific and Practical Conference "Non-traditional Plant Growing, Ecology and Health", Alushta ( 1997) International symposium "New and non-traditional plants and prospects for their practical use", Pushchino (1997) All-Russian scientific and practical conference "Introduction of non-traditional and rare agricultural plants", Penza (1998) in scientific Proceedings of the Tyumen Agricultural Academy (1997) in the abstracts of the scientific-practical conference "Current state and prospects of scientific research in the field of pharmacy", Samara (1996).

The structure and scope of the thesis. The thesis consists of an introduction, 7 chapters, conclusions, recommendations, bibliography and 10 appendices.


Comparative evaluation of the productivity of hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis L.) depending on the variety and origin of the sample The text of the scientific article in the specialty "Chemical technology»

A comparative assessment of the productivity of the content of essential oil in the raw material and the yield of samples of medicinal hyssop of various origins, grown in the conditions of the Moscow region, was carried out. Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) of the Hoarfrost variety was distinguished by the maximum content of essential oil in the raw material. The variety Lazurit was characterized by a high yield combined with a high content of essential oil. It was found that as the height of the hyssop plants increases, the content of essential oil decreases in them.


Description of the plant

Hyssopus is a genus of plants in the Lamiaceae family, otherwise called blue St. John's wort. Includes 7 species, one of which is the most typical and widespread - hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis, syn. Hyssopus angustifolius). It is a perennial dwarf shrub, the stems in the lower (ground) part become hard and lignify closer to September. Distributed in the temperate climate of Africa and Eurasia, in the wild on the territory of Russia, it is found in the forest-steppe and steppes of the European part, in the Caucasus, Altai.

Also on the territory of our country you can see a rare species of chalk hyssop (H. cretaceus), listed in the Red Book and practically disappearing from the face of the planet. The third species found in our country is i. doubtful (H. ambiguus). It is especially rich in essential oils and therefore is in demand in cooking, however, it is difficult to acquire planting material for this plant.

Hyssop is dubious. Photo from the site plantarium.ru

Hyssop medicinal

As mentioned above, the most popular type of hyssop is and. drug. The branchy plant reaches a height of 80 cm. Growing, it forms lush thickets. Stems glabrous or slightly pubescent, tetrahedral. The leaves are opposite, lanceolate, light green.

Stem with leaves of officinal hyssop. Photo by the author

It begins to bloom in mid-June and continues until September. Individual flowers are small (7-10 mm), have 4 long stamens that protrude beyond the edges of the flower and give it a fluffy appearance. There are many flowers in a spikelet, they bloom at the same time, they last for 5-7 days each, and therefore, as a whole, the plant remains decorative for a long time. The blue color of the flowers is considered classic, but there are also pink, white and purple.

Spikelets of hyssop medicinal 'Country doctor' with pink flowers in August. There are unopened buds and fruits that are beginning to ripen. Photo by the author

At the end of summer, seeds begin to ripen. They are large enough, black in color, ripen well in the middle lane, if desired, they are easy to collect. Dropping seeds, hyssop multiplies by self-sowing.


Hyssop medicinal - beautiful and useful

It is difficult to name a region with a warm and temperate climate, where the medicinal and ornamental plant hyssop is not found. The perennial semi-shrub culture of the Lamiaceae family has been allocated into a separate genus - hyssop (Hyssopus) with a typical representative - medicinal hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis).

Hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis). © Liftea

The greatest variety of wild hyssop (common hyssop) is found in Western and Central Asia, as well as in the Eastern Mediterranean, which also indicates its place of origin. Common hyssop is widespread in the wild throughout Europe, in warm and temperate regions of the European and Asian parts of Russia and the CIS countries.

The study of the species of hyssop and its domestication made it possible to isolate the medicinal hyssop as a species containing significant amounts of substances that have a positive effect on human health.

Currently, hyssop is introduced into the official pharmacopoeia in Romania, Portugal, Switzerland, France, Sweden, Germany. In the form of dry preparations and alcoholic tinctures, hyssop is sold in pharmacies in Russia and some CIS countries.

Composition and useful properties of medicinal hyssop

For medicinal purposes, the leaves of medicinal hyssop, roots and the upper flowering part of plants are used. Dry the plant in the shade.Properly dried, the herb has a pleasant sage, bitter-spicy aroma. The taste of the herb is astringent, with a camphor aftertaste.

The roots and aerial flowering part of the medicinal hyssop contain:

  • flavonoids, including hyssopin, diosmin, hesperidin, vicenin-2
  • essential oil, from 0.6 to 2.0%, the main components of the essential oil are: geraniol, thujone, pinocampon, borneol, fellandrene greenish-yellow liquid, its components give the essential oil a spicy aroma with a distinct turpentine-camphor smell
  • triterpenic acids, including oleic, ursolic, chlorogenic
  • vitamins - "C" (0.2%), vitamins of group "B" (B1, B2, B6), "A", "E", "PP", "K", "D"
  • macro- and microelements: potassium, calcium, iron, copper, manganese, selenium, chromium, boron, fluorine, chlorine, tungsten, flint
  • tannins and bitter substances, alcohols and aldehydes, they contain resins and gums.

The chemical components of the organs of the medicinal hyssop determine its medicinal properties. Their pronounced positive effect is manifested:

  • with inflammatory diseases
  • as an expectorant
  • antipyretic
  • antispasmodic
  • wound healing agent.

Hyssop medicinal is widely used in gynecology, for hormonal disorders, asthma and gastrointestinal diseases (dyspepsia, constipation), anemia and many other ailments and diseases. Good phytoncide.

Infusions and decoctions of hyssop medicinal excite the central nervous system, therefore, it is necessary to use its preparations, even pharmaceutical ones, carefully, after consulting a doctor.

In folk medicine, medicinal hyssop is used for bronchitis, laryngitis, bronchial asthma, neuroses and angina pectoris, for rheumatic attacks, as a tonic, diuretic and antihelminthic.

The antimicrobial property allows the use of medicinal hyssop for purulent staphylococcal skin lesions. They wash their eyes with broths, singers use them in the form of rinsing with hoarseness. Everywhere rinsing with decoctions is used for stomatitis and diseases of the pharynx.

Hyssop officinalis is a valuable honey plant (fragrant honey, one of the best with medicinal properties).

The raw material is widely used in perfumery. In cooking, hyssop is used as a spice and flavoring culture. It promotes digestion and stimulates the appetite.

Young hyssop shoots with leaves, fresh and dried, are used to flavor cold snacks. They are added to improve the taste of fresh cucumber and tomato salads, first courses (potato and bean soups) and second courses (stuffed eggs, stews, zrazy). Hyssop is a part of tonic drinks and absinthe.

Infusion of hyssop medicinal
Description of hyssop

For those who do not know the distinguishing features of hyssop or do not identify the medicinal hyssop with synonyms, we remind you that this plant is popularly called:

  • blue sage
  • St. John's wort blue
  • susop
  • hisop
  • yusefka
  • common hyssop (not to be confused with the wild species of common hyssop).

Hyssop officinalis is a perennial low shrub with an aboveground mass from 20 to 80 cm in height.

Root hyssop medicinal system is pivotal. The main roots are ligneous with a large number of lateral additional roots. Numerous stems form a lush, slightly spreading bush. The stems are rod-shaped, tetrahedral, lignified at the base.

The arrangement of leaves of hyssop officinalis on the stems is opposite. The leaves are small, sessile. The leaf blade is whole-edged, lanceolate, linear-lanceolate, dark green, covered on both sides with elastic, glandular villi, through which essential oil vapors are released in hot weather. The size of the leaves from the base to the top becomes smaller.

Inflorescences of hyssop officinalis are spike-shaped, often one-sided, located in the upper part of the plants. Below are located in the axils of the leaves of 3-7 small flowers in the form of false half-whorls.

The corollas of the flowers are blue, purple, less often white, pink. The flowers are double-lipped, asymmetric. The stamens are long, extending beyond the corolla. A single flower lives for 5-7 days and then withers. Blooming of flowers is gradual. Flowering lasts from June to September.

The fruit of the medicinal hyssop is a triangular nutlet, oblong-ovoid in shape. Seeds are small, dark brown. Ripen in the second half of August - the first half of September. Seed germination lasts 3-4 years.

Hyssop officinalis (Hyssopus officinalis). © Peganum
Hyssop varieties for cultivation in the country

At the dacha, medicinal hyssop can be grown as a spicy-flavoring culture, an ornamental shrub and a honey plant for beekeepers.

Varieties of hyssop medicinal for the pharmacy garden

For the purpose of using it in the form of medicinal decoctions, tinctures, teas, it is best to grow medicinal hyssop in a pharmacy bed, where no fertilizers are applied and, most importantly, the plants are not sprayed with pesticides. Recommended for growing varieties:

  • Pleasant Semko
  • Nikitsky white
  • Dachny
  • Healer
  • Lapis lazuli
  • Hoarfrost and others.

Plants bloom with blue, bright blue and white flowers.

Based on the results of chemical analysis, some researchers report that plants with blue flowers contain the greatest amount of essential oils than white and pink-flowered plants. According to other sources, varieties with white flowers contain the maximum amount of essential oils during flowering, the minimum - with pink flowers and intermediate - with blue and blue.

Hyssop in landscape design

Summer residents use a bright and ornamental plant to form a hedge. Low grades - for edging rockeries, paths, flower beds, borders.

In landscape design, varieties are used:

  • Nikitsky white
  • Summer resident
  • Amethyst
  • Chord
  • Pink fog
  • Pink flamingo
  • Healer, as well as varieties recommended for cultivation in the pharmacy garden.

The varieties Akkord, Pink fog, Doctor and Pink flamingo are included in the State Register of the Russian Federation.

All varieties of hyssop fit beautifully into flower beds of spicy-flavoring plants when grown together with mint, lavender, rosemary, oregano and are used in cooking.

At the dacha for medicinal purposes on the pharmacy bed, it is enough to grow 2 varieties of medicinal hyssop with multi-colored flowers. If the owners keep hives, then the number of varieties will not matter: they are all good honey plants and attract pollinators.

Pharmacy bed with medicinal hyssop. © fireweedschool
Growing hyssop

All types and varieties of hyssop are very unpretentious plants. In natural nature, they occupy mainly steppe, stony dry areas, mountain slopes. The culture is frost - and winter - hardy, drought - resistant.

When growing hyssop medicinal in suburban areas, plants prefer well-drained, loose soils, neutral or slightly alkaline and cannot tolerate swampy and saline areas. With quality care, they can live in one place for up to 10 years. After 5 years of use, they need rejuvenation using the transplanting method.

Hyssop care requirements

Hyssop can grow anywhere in the garden, but it needs enough light. In the shade, the content of essential oils sharply decreases in it.

Hyssop is a very interesting plant to care for.

  • The culture is not affected by diseases and pests, but it can get sick from excessive watering and feeding.
  • Needs weeding at a young age and pruning flowering shoots.
  • With regular pruning, the plant shrubs well, throws out new candles with buds.
  • The cut flowering twigs are dried and used in teas and broths.
  • For the winter, the bush is cut off, leaving high (15-20 cm) hemp above the ground.
  • Before the bushes close, the soil is mulched after watering.

Hyssop is propagated by seed and vegetative division of the bush and cuttings.

Seed propagation of hyssop

For seed propagation, hyssop seeds can be bought or prepared yourself.

When self-harvesting, the brown tops of faded plants are cut off and laid out on paper. When completely dry, the capsules crack, and the seeds are easily shaken out onto paper. Seeds remain viable for up to 4 years. Hyssop blooms from the first year of life, but seeds are suitable for reproduction, starting from 2-year-old plants.

Sowing seeds in open ground

In warm regions, hyssop seeds are sown in the soil without stratification in May or early October. The soil is prepared as usual for all flowering shrubs. Sowing seeds directly into the ground, the seedlings are thinned out when they reach a height of 8-10 cm, leaving a distance of 15-20-25 cm in a row, and 45-50-70 cm between rows.

Growing from seeds by seedling method

Hyssop with seed propagation is often grown through seedlings. For seedlings, seeds are sown in late February - early March in prepared light, permeable, well-moistened soil. Sowing is carried out in grooves of a centimeter depth, located every 5-6 cm. Sowing is sprinkled with a dry substrate. The tray is covered with foil, creating greenhouse conditions. After 2 weeks, hyssop shoots appear. Seedlings in the nursery grow within 2 months, sometimes less. Seedlings break through after 7-10 days, increasing the distance between plants to 5 cm or planting them in separate containers. When the seedlings form 5 true leaves, the seedlings are planted in open ground after 15-20 cm.

Seedlings of medicinal hyssop. © margaridamoreira
Vegetative propagation of hyssop

Cuttings

Cuttings 10-15 cm long are cut with a sharp tool in spring or summer from the green shoots of the root zone. Hyssop cuttings are immediately planted in a prepared place or bed, previously dug up and sufficiently moistened with a root solution. For better rooting, the planting is covered with a cut plastic bottle or film. The rooted stalk blooms only the next year. Further care is the same as for adult hyssop plants.

Dividing the bush

Reproduction by divisions is the simplest. Usually, by 5 years of planting, hyssop is renewed by seating. An adult bush with a spring transplant is divided into several parts. Young people are selected. Each division should have a part of the root system and a one-year shoot. Landing is carried out in shallow holes, watered. After absorbing water, mulch with any fine mulch.

  • Until the aboveground mass is closed, the plants are systematically loosened.
  • Watering is carried out every 2-3 weeks when the topsoil dries up only young plants. In the future, watering is carried out in dry periods. A small amount of moisture is sufficient for plants. They endure drought calmly.
  • Young plants are fed, if necessary, once a month with full fertilizer (nitrophos, nitroammophos and others). One of the dressings can be replaced by adding wood ash. Since the root of the hyssop is pivotal, then by the age of 2 - 3 years of age you can switch to a one-time feeding. Moreover, top dressing must be carried out before flowering. In practice, hyssop is fed when necessary or when grown in depleted soils.

Procurement of raw hyssop medicinal for home use

For homemade preparations, the flowering tops of the hyssop are cut, starting at 2 years of age. The length of the cut shoots is 10-15 cm. Only green flowering shoots are cut. Lignified or lignified are not suitable. Dried, spread out on tables, in a dry room or in dryers at a temperature of + 35 * ... + 40 * C. At a higher drying temperature, plants lose their medicinal qualities. A properly dried plant remains green, has a pungent odor, and a bitter taste.


Watch the video: Hyssop, A very powerful Anti-Viral Plant