How is pruning done on a ring, on an external or internal bud

How is pruning done on a ring, on an external or internal bud

Trees that are not pruned annually age very quickly, resulting in a loss of yield. This is the only way that can rejuvenate the tree and prolong its fruiting capacity. Therefore, the ability to prune trees is not a whim, but the responsibility of every gardener.

But not all gardeners are proficient in the correct cutting technique, which leads to a weakening of the tree. These consequences are fraught with loss of yield or can lead to infection of the tree with various pathogens. Based on this, we can conclude that the branches should be pruned correctly.

You can use two basic types of trimming: ring trim and kidney trim.

Cutting "to the ring"

This type of pruning is used when removing large branches. This happens in cases where the branch has dried up, broken, or it does not bear fruit. Branches are removed completely if they are underdeveloped or stunted. All branches at their base have barely noticeable influxes located around the entire branch. This influx is capable of generating new cells for reproduction very quickly. In this place, marks from a hacksaw or secateurs heal much faster. Therefore, if branches need to be cut, then only in one place.

Slices should be made even, without additional injury to the cut site, as they tighten faster.

In order not to injure the influx, the cutting technique should be as follows, especially if the branch is large. To begin with, stepping back from the influx of 25-30 cm, the branch is filed from below. After that, shifting the hacksaw 2-3 cm towards the ring, the branch is finally sawn off. After that, the resulting stump is carefully cut down, along the top of the ring.

It is not allowed to cut off the branch along with the influx, as this can lead to the appearance of hollows in the tree, rotting and complete drying out of this place or regrown new branches. The fact that a new overgrown branch will not bear fruit is unambiguous. Having made such pruning, in the future, you can lose the entire tree, as it can get sick, especially with fungal diseases.

If it is difficult to determine the presence of an influx, then the cut is made approximately, but at some distance from the place from which the branch grows. In no case should you remove the branch flush with the base. Be sure to step back 1-2 cm, and then make a cut.

Kidney pruning: external or internal

In order to properly form the crown of the tree, the branches are shortened. In this case, the pruning is done "kidney". Depending on the direction of further growth, pruning is performed on an internal or external bud. This type of pruning is also used to form the crown of ornamental shrubs.

If you want to thicken the crown, then cut it to the inner kidney, and if thinned, then to the outer one.

Plants with a sparse crown require strengthening of the center. Therefore, pruning is carried out on the inner bud, that is, the further growth of the tree will be directed towards the inside of the crown. During the pruning, you should adhere to the correct technique, which is that, departing from the kidney about 5 mm, an oblique cut is made. If you retreat more, then the cut will take a long time to heal, and if less, then there is a possibility of damage to the kidney.

Having completed the cut, you need to pay attention to the nature of the cut. If the wood in this place is dark or begins to darken, then this means that the branch is unhealthy and needs to be cut to fresh wood or removed completely.

After completing all the actions for cutting branches, you should cover all the cuts with paint specially designed for this, such as "Gardening Luck". Some gardeners use a garden pitch for this, although experts believe that this should not be done, since the cut site does not "breathe", which slows down the healing process.

All branches obtained as a result of pruning are moved away from healthy trees and burned. This makes it possible to destroy most pathogens and pests. The benefits of this will be twofold, since the ash can be used as fertilizer.

If there is no experience in pruning, especially fruit trees, it is better not to do this without consulting an experienced gardener. Incorrect pruning can lead to inhibition of tree growth and reduced fertility. Therefore, when starting to trim, you need to think very well.

When it comes to pruning ornamental shrubs, there is plenty of room for experimentation. Shrubs are quite tenacious and an extra cut off branch will not have any effect on its growth.

The best time for pruning a garden in spring

The best pruning time in the middle lane is early spring before swelling of the kidneys (March, April). Pruning should be completed just before the buds swell.

Inventory. Manual pruning shears with short handles, manual pruning shears with long handles, bar pruning shears of various designs, garden saws, garden knives, garden ladders.

Pruning methods. In the practice of gardening in young and fruiting plantations, mainly two main pruning methods are used: shortening, in which the branches are reduced in length, and thinning, when they are cut out entirely (fig. 1) .

If, when shortening the part to be removed is less than 1/3 of the pruned branch, shortening is considered weak pruning by 1/3 of the length - medium shortening removing more than half the length of the branch is a strong shortening.

At annual branches the cut is made over the bud, in perennials - over some branch - the so-called pruning for translation. Trimming for translation is done if it is necessary to change the direction of branch growth (fig. 6) , limit the size of the tree, lighten the crown, with rejuvenation and in a number of other cases.

The response of a tree to shortening and thinning has significant differences. Pruning branches more strongly promotes vegetative growth than thinning. The vigor of shoot growth after branch shortening and the number of sprouted buds that give rise to lateral shoots depend on the degree of shortening, the variety and age of the tree.

With strong shortening of annual branches as a rule, 3-4 or more are formed, with a weak one - the number of shoots is less and their length is shorter.

Correct use of pruning improves lighting conditions in the crown, increases the fruiting period, stimulates the appearance of a large number of annual shoots and young fruit formations, makes it possible to get a harvest annually, and increases the quality of fruits.

When pruning a young, fruitful and old garden, there are differences in the tasks set.

The main task of the gardener when pruning a young tree consists in forming a crown according to one selected type. In a fruit-bearing garden, the tree has already been formed and the task now is to prevent growth and fruiting from fading.

During the aging period with the extinction of fruiting and the dying off of parts of the crown, pruning is carried out to create a new crown from well-developed and conveniently located new branches.

Thinning affects mainly the improvement of illumination and the increase in the productivity of fruit twigs inside the crown.

Pruning fruit trees

On warm days, you can start pruning apple, pear, mountain ash, irgi, but first you need to make sure that the trees have not received serious damage in the winter-spring period.

They start pruning from older trees, since the fruit buds bloom earlier than the leafy ones. Prepare the necessary tool in advance, sharply sharpen garden knives, saws, manual air (on a long pole) pruners.

To cover the slices, prepare a garden varnish or oil paint on natural linseed oil. In no case should you use lead whitewash and synthetic paints that burn the bark.

Before you start pruning, be sure to master the technique of making the correct cuts. Remember that the branch is cut only for the ring. What does this mean? At the base of branches extending at an angle of more than 30 °, as a rule, there is an annular inundation, where meristematic tissues are concentrated, contributing to the rapid healing of the wound. The slice must be oriented along its top.

Rejuvenating pruning Often inexperienced gardeners "out of pity" make cuts above the ring, leaving stumps that interfere with wound healing, dry out, crack and become a place of accumulation of pests and pathogens. Even if it becomes necessary to leave a stump (thorn) in order to tie a shoot to it, do not forget to remove it later.

It is wrong to make too large a cut that goes deep beyond the annular bead, forming a long and difficult-to-heal wound. If you need to cut a branch growing at an acute angle, around which there is no annular overflow, to determine the correct cut line, use a simple trick: mentally draw one line along the trunk or branch from which the cut branch departs, and the second - perpendicular to the cut branch. Divide the angle between them in half, and along this line guide the cut.

Cut thick branches with a sharpened garden file. So that there is no scuffing of the bark, after which the wound is difficult to heal, first cut from below, and then cut from above. It is better to remove large heavy branches in parts: first, file the branch as deeply as possible from the bottom, at a distance of 20-30 cm from its base, and then, stepping back 3-5 cm further, make a second saw-cut from above.

To prevent the falling branch from breaking others, support it with your hand. After removing the sawn branch, cut out the remaining stump. Slices made with a file must be cleaned with a sharp garden knife, all seizures of bark and wood must be removed, but in no case should the edges be rounded. Cover all wounds immediately with garden varnish or other putty.

Pruning with an inner bud Thin branches (up to 3 cm) can be cut with a garden knife or pruning shears. Guide the pruner from the bottom of the shoot to be cut, placing its lower blade on the surface of the annular bead. Slightly pulling the shoot with your left hand makes it easier to work, and the cut is smooth, you cannot install the pruner from top to bottom, since in this case the shoot is not cut off, but breaks off at the cutting point.

Remember one more pruning rule: shortening the one-year growth should be done not on any, but only on a well-developed bud, directed in the direction necessary for the crown. To expand an overly compressed crown, cut to the outer bud, that is, cut over the bud that is on the outside of the branch. Conversely, a drooping crown or individual branches can be lifted by cutting to the inner bud.

When pruning for the kidney, be sure to cut the correct cut. It is best done with a sharp garden knife. The cutting technique is as follows. Place the knife blade 2-3 mm below the base of the bud, but on the opposite side of the branch. The plane of the knife blade should be at an angle of approximately 45 ° to the axis of the branch so that the end of the cut is 2 mm above the top of the bud. Holding the twig from below with your other hand, make a cut with a sharp movement of the knife towards you.

Outside bud pruning The principle of bud pruning is maintained even when pruning branches for transfer. The cut should be about 30 degrees away from the branch to which the translation is being made.

The degree and nature of pruning depends on the age of the tree, its condition, varietal characteristics, etc. At a young age pruning is necessary for the formation of the future crown.

At the first pruning, leave the central conductor and (if there is a choice) four to five skeletal branches directed in different directions and located one from another in height at a distance of 10-15 cm. The lower branch should be at least 0.5 m from the ground, more low cut on the ring.

Shorten the left skeletal branches so that after trimming their ends are approximately at the same level, and the central conductor should be 20-25 cm higher.

Pay special attention to the timely removal or shortening of the competitor's center conductor. If this was not done in a timely manner, and two branches of the same strength of development have grown, forming a sharp fork or even a bifurcation of the trunk, one of them must be cut out so that the inevitable break between them does not occur in such cases.

Cutting to a ring Form the correct crown on the remaining branch. Sometimes in a young tree, the central conductor is severely weakened. It must be cut off, leaving only a thorn 10-15 cm high, and a lower branch should be tied to it, carefully bringing it to a vertical position and subordinating the other branches in height to it. The next year, be sure to cut the thorn on the ring.

Start the formation of a re-grafted young tree in the second year after grafting. If they all take root well and grow well, shorten them so that they branch out. Do not forget about the subordination of the branches. Re-graft the branch with an unused or dead vaccine, and remove all others unnecessary for re-grafting.

Tree pruning techniques

There are two methods of getting rid of excess vegetation from a tree. As a rule, gardeners alternate between these techniques. Each of them is used for the correct growth and fruiting of the plum tree.

Pruning plums into a ring

If a large branch of a tree is damaged, sick or not bearing fruit, it must be removed entirely. At the base of all branches, on the bark, you can see an undulating influx surrounding the branch throughout its entire thickness. It contains many cells that are ready for rapid reproduction. These cells affect the rapid tightening of the cut sites. Therefore, the desired branch is cut along the upper edge of this influx. This is called "Trim to Ring".

Do not cut a branch with or much higher than the ring ridge. Such errors will lead to rotting branches, the formation of hollows and wood breakage.

Pruning for internal and external buds

This technique is also called "transfer to the lateral branch". It involves shortening fresh shoots above the bud, on the sides of which no branches grow. It is necessary that the cut angle is equal to 45 degrees.

There are two options for this procedure.

  • Cutting to external buds, when after the procedure, a bud remains on the branch, directed to the outer side of the crown.
  • Cutting to the inner bud leaves a cut above it, with the tip pointing inward.

The advantages and disadvantages of summer pruning

The procedure is necessary in some cases, although it is carried out more superficially than in the fall. Fruit trees can be pruned in summer for the following benefits:

  • when rapidly growing branches are removed, nutrients are directed by the tree for the formation and development of fruits
  • during this period it is easier to arrange the crown so that all the branches have enough sunlight, as well as to create convenient conditions for harvesting
  • removal of young shoots has a rejuvenating effect on fruit trees, stimulates them to develop new branches
  • trimming excess shoots creates comfortable conditions for fruit ripening, prevents the appearance of malignant growths on the leaves
  • summer procedure stimulates the formation and growth of new buds, reduces excessive growth of shoots.

Pruning fruit trees and shrubs in summer has some disadvantages:

  • the formation of deciduous buds on the twigs decreases
  • the growth and development of fruit trees may slow down slightly
  • an incorrectly performed procedure will lead to a decrease in fruiting, in some cases it will cause the death of the plant
  • the vegetative period is delayed.

Orchard pruning technique

Don't cut too low, since the wound will be elongated, as a result of which the kidney will shrink or give a weak shoot. If the cut is too high, the spine will dry out and prevent wounds from overgrowing.

Shortening of one-year growth should be done on a well-developed bud, directed in the direction necessary for the crown.

To expand an overly compressed crown, cut to the outer kidney, i.e. make a cut over the bud that is located on the outside of the branch. On the contrary, a drooping crown or a separate branch is cut into an inner bud.

Cut to the ring, (Fig. 3) When thinning, the branches are cut over the annular inundation at their base. This contributes to the rapid healing of wounds. Leaving small stumps or making cuts is not recommended.

Cropping for translation, (fig. 4 and 5) It is mainly used on perennial branches when it is necessary to change the direction of growth of a branch or to shorten its length. When pruning using this method, do not leave stumps or cut too low. The cut should have a slope of about 30 degrees. away from the branch to which the translation is being made.

Combining this trim with the usual shortening of the branches, strong growths turn into fruiting branches.

Small branches shortened or cut into a ring with a garden knife or secateurs. When cutting, the branch to be removed is slightly bent to the side opposite to the beginning of the cut. During pruning with pruning shears, do not twist and twist. The wide and sharp part of the secateurs should always be directed towards the part of the branch to be left.

The secateurs must not be installed from top to bottom., since in this case the shoot is not cut off, but breaks off at the cutting site.

Large branches should be removed with a sharp file. A not very large branch is sawed off, supporting it with a hand. So that there is no seizure of the bark, after which the wound is difficult to heal, they first make a cut from below, and then saw from above. A large heavy branch, to prevent peeling, is removed in several steps (fig. 7) .

First take a drink from below at a distance of 25-30 cm from the base of the branch by 1/3 of the diameter. The second cut is made from above 3-5 cm closer to the base of the branch than the first. The rest of the branch (stump) is cut out along the annular inundation, supporting it with your hand.

Strongly weakened, and then the main skeletal branches hurt and the central conductor, if several large wounds are inflicted on them in a row. When pruning mature trees, cutting out skeletal branches should be avoided as this can lead to hollows. Dry branches must be cut to a healthy place, otherwise the wound will not heal.

The quality of pruning significantly affects the condition of fruit trees. Uneven, not cleaned cuts on the branches, formed as a result of the use of blunt garden saws, fractures, bark scuffing and deformation of annual growths when pruning them with not sharpened pruning shears, incorrectly cut branches (above or below the growth ring) - weaken the tree and do not contribute to wound healing.

In order to avoid negative consequences pruning must be done with a sharpened garden tool.

After trimming all cuts with a diameter of more than 1 cm must be covered with garden var. Wounds should be covered immediately or after 1-2 hours, but no later than 24 hours after trimming.

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