Creating a compost bed

Creating a compost bed

Everything with food is ok on my compost bed

The most important factor in the proper development of plants is their balanced nutrition.

But the majority of summer residents, with whom I often communicate, ideas about plant nutrition are often close to the ideas of Aristotle, which reigned in European civilization for two thousand years. He taught that plants are like animals, placed with their heads in the ground and finding ready-made food in it with their roots.

When meeting with gardeners and gardeners, I often ask the same question: "Where do your vegetables grow best?" The answer is almost the same: "On the compost heap". To the question:" Why is this happening? ", Most do not know the correct answer, at best, gardeners say that there is a lot of heat and nutrients.


The third question is: "Why does it grow worse even on the best garden bed, consisting of practically one compost, than on an unripe compost heap?" and does, as a rule, baffle everyone. It would seem a paradox, but it can be easily resolved if you know how and what plants feed on. Most gardeners believe that plants, in addition to water, need nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other minerals... But today it is known for certain that nitrogen in the diet of plants is only 15%, the rest of the macro- and microelements account for 7% altogether. Also, plants need oxygen (20%) and hydrogen (8%), and the main element in the diet is carbon (50%).

A plant's carbon comes from carbon dioxide. Back in school, we studied that in the green leaf of plants when exposed to sunlight, a unique phenomenon of photosynthesis occurs: the formation of organic matter from water molecules and carbon dioxide with the release of oxygen. And what does the compost heap have to do with it?

The fact is that carbon dioxide in the air, only 0.03% is about 30% of what is needed, the remaining 70% of the plants are obtained as a result of the vital activity of living microorganisms (bacteria, microfungi, etc.) that decompose organic matter with the release of not only mineral elements, but also a large amount of carbon dioxide ... Now it becomes clear that on the compost heap, where the intensive decomposition of organic matter occurs under the influence of a large number of developing microorganisms, the best conditions are created for the carbon (basic) nutrition of plants.

Thus, our practical observations have led us to the truth already proven by scientists that living microorganisms, decomposing organic matter (grass, foliage, etc.) in the process of their vital activity, play an important role in creating fertility and favorable conditions for plant growth.

The first microbiological preparation Nitragin was created back in 1896 and contained only one nitrogen-fixing bacterium (nodule). This bacterium converts nitrogen gas, which is "inedible" for plants, into a nitrate form that is easily assimilated by plants. In the late 80s of the twentieth century, the Japanese scientist Higa Terou first created a stable community of agronomically beneficial microorganisms (microbiological preparation Kyussey).

Agronomically beneficial microorganisms not only accelerate the decomposition of organic matter many times over, but also suppress pathogenic microflora (phytopathogens, putrefactive, etc.). The results of using the drug surpassed all expectations: yields with significantly less labor costs increased by 3-4 times. Further development led to the creation of technology for effective microorganisms (EM technology). EM technology is one of the main methods of organic farming today.

So, dear gardeners, if everything grows "by leaps and bounds" on the compost heap, then make the right conclusion and turn all your beds into compost beds! Apply organic matter in large quantities not to the compost bin, but directly to the beds. Revitalize the activity of microorganisms and worms, for which in any case do not use chemicals and do not dig, but only loosen the earth, use EM technologies, and then your environmentally friendly crops will grow without nitrates and toxins while reducing costs and constantly increasing fertility soil!

Sergey Rumyantsev


Deep beds

Such beds are also called low or recessed. The name speaks for itself. The main function of "low" beds is to save the soil from overheating and retain moisture. Therefore, they are suitable for regions with hot, sultry climates, where droughts are very frequent, especially for areas with sandy or marginal soil, which constantly dries up. The arrangement of such beds requires physical effort, so they are usually prepared in the fall, when the heat subsides.

The choice of place must be approached responsibly, even in the driest region, natural disasters can periodically occur. Therefore, a garden bed should not be arranged in low-lying areas of the site, where there may sometimes be an excess of water.

For the arrangement, you need to dig a trench of the required length in the selected area. The width of such a bed will depend on whether the walls of the bed are laid out. If there are walls, then the thickness of the material must be added to the desired width of the bed.

Brick, stone, cinder blocks, wooden boards, etc. can be used as material for the fence.

Further, the bed is equipped depending on the characteristics of the soil:

  • In order not to stagnate water, on heavy soils you need to dig a trench, preferably for 2 shovel bayonets, at least. Next, you will need to equip a good drainage layer. For this, construction waste, hemp, thick branches and other similar material are suitable.
  • On poor soils also - the deeper the layer, the better. In a deep bed, it will be possible to make a sufficient layer of fertile soil in which the plants will grow comfortably
  • On sandy soils, in addition to sufficient depth, it is advisable to make a small clay layer at the bottom of the trench or lay out covering material. This technique will help to avoid problems with the rapid leaching of nutrients and the outflow of water during irrigation.
  • The last layer of the bed is covered with fertile soil, depending on the type of soil. If the soil is heavy, sand, compost is added. If poor, infertile - compost, humus.
  • After watering, the bed is left unattended for a while so that the soil settles, after which it can be used.

Caring for such beds consists in timely watering and cleaning the grass from the aisle.

As you use the bed, the soil in it can settle significantly. Then it will need to be added more. In a very dry and hot season, the beds will need to be mulched in order to retain moisture as much as possible and avoid overheating of the plants.

Pluses of deep beds

The arrangement of such beds, on the one hand, contributes to the creation of optimal conditions for growing plants in hot and dry regions. On the other hand, the work of the gardener is facilitated by reducing watering.

Plants in more comfortable conditions will be able to show higher yields, which means that it will be possible to reduce the number of plants grown without compromising the harvest, in this case labor costs will also be reduced.

The device of deep beds allows you to create conditions for growing plants in very poor, barren soils. Of course, this requires considerable physical effort, but on practically barren soils, these efforts are commensurate with the end result.

The main function of deep beds is to save the soil from overheating and retain moisture

Cons of deep beds

  • The complexity of the arrangement, and in the version with sides, you need to purchase material
  • If the surface of the bed is not even, then water can stagnate in the lowest place, so the bed is carefully leveled before planting or sowing
  • If the trench is not dug deep enough on heavy soils, water can stagnate during irrigation, so you need to dig a deep trench and be sure to make a drainage layer.

Dear Readers! As you can see, various options for arranging the beds in the country can differ significantly in the principle of the device, the crops recommended for planting in such beds, as well as the regions of use.

Therefore, if someone says that high or recessed beds are "super", then do not rush to knock down boxes or dig. Be sure to analyze the characteristics of your site and soil and find your best option to facilitate your work in the garden and achieve the highest yields.


Creating a comfortable and beautiful vegetable garden

  • Fruit crops
    • Apricot
    • Cherry
    • Pear
    • Plum
    • Apple tree
  • Berry crops
    • Honeysuckle
    • Viburnum
    • Strawberries and strawberries
    • Gooseberry
    • Raspberries
    • Sea buckthorn
    • Rowan
    • Currant
  • Ornamental crops
  • Mass picking of berries
  • Landscape design

Creating a comfortable and beautiful vegetable garden

Is your orchard and vegetable garden a magical island of aesthetics and beauty in your backyard?

If so, congratulations!

It often happens that the garden looks dull and joyless, moreover, it is not conveniently located.

We will reanimate the space before the planting season!

To begin with, we take a pencil and a piece of paper in our hands, draw a plot with a house and other buildings, both existing on the site and with planned ones.

Then we designate the cardinal points, fix the existing trees on the site, stone beds and flower beds, concrete paths - everything that cannot be transferred to a new place without a magic wand.

We determine a well-lit place for a vegetable garden, sunny and calm - for fruit seedlings. And this place must be near the source of water for irrigation. Combining a garden and a vegetable garden in one place is a good idea, the main thing is to plant trees on the north side so that they do not shade the growing vegetables.

Pests and diseases in fruit and vegetable crops are different, so there is no need to worry that the "eaters" of cabbage will eat your apples too.

When planning the beds, we think not only about how many carrots and onions we want to grow, but also about whether we can provide proper care for the plantings so that there is time to relax with pleasure in the shade of the trees and admire the beauty around you.

So that weeding does not turn into a painful hard labor, it is very important to create convenience in the garden. If you have problems with joints or back, you can make high beds. It is much more convenient to handle vegetables while standing.

But beds wider than 70 cm should not be planned, otherwise it will be difficult to care for the central plantings.

When drawing a future garden on paper, remember about the distance between the beds - we leave a convenient width of the path.

The unusual shape of the beds and their placement on the square will create an expressive basis for the garden decor. What shape are the beds? All sorts of different: round, square, curled in a spiral, formed by the sun with outgoing rays and an endless variety of options.

Having decided on the shape of the beds, we begin to think about their height. Beds of different heights will create a visual effect of dynamics, and equal in height - calmness and order.

Now we add colors. How do you see your new vegetable garden? Only natural and natural shades? Or maybe the elegantly noble dark color of the walls of the beds will delight you? Or do you want to be charged with positive from bright daring elements: yellow, pink, fuchsia? You can also add juicy shades by organizing a mini-flower bed in the center of the garden. If the inner Plyushkin does not give the flowers of the garden soil, we put the pots with flowers where it is monotonously green.

We choose the material for the walls of the bed with which it is easier and more harmonious to realize what we have conceived. The beds made of natural wood and limestone look very natural. The sides made of plastic and painted wood look fun and modern.

When purchasing material for arranging a path between the beds, we take the one that will be easier to keep clean. Ideal - natural stone, paving slabs, paving stones.

And, finally, we turn to the contents of our beds.

It is customary to plant plants of the same species in one garden bed - who told us that there is no other way? Or maybe there is cabbage in the center, around beets, and radish around the edge? The garden bed will look like a flower bed!

Not sure what to think of in your garden?

Google will help for free, a landscape designer for money!


Creating a compost bed - garden and vegetable garden

Question about sawdust mulch.
I poured out all the available sawdust mass (tyrsa) on a free area (in the corner). A layer of about 20 cm (1m * 1m). Poured 20 liters of urea solution. But the tyrsa was soaked only by 0.5-1 cm. Icon_eek.gif icon_eek.gif This is how much water I need to water such mulch under garden and vegetable crops. Is the amount of water spent equal to A and B.
And - not mulched crops - just watering.
B - mulched with tyrsa.

Answer
Oh, and you will finish playing with sawdust and urea. When urea solution is introduced into sawdust, a violent process begins with a large release of ammonia, which, as you know, is a rather aggressive gas, which, although in small doses, is useful for plants, but in large doses is detrimental to plants.
If you have already decided to add urea to the sawdust, then do not immediately use these sawdust as mulch, otherwise you will ruin everything. It is better to keep the sawdust in a heap for several months after adding urea to the sawdust, and it is better to use them as mulch for the next year.

To begin with, sawdust does not kill nitrogen, but is borrowed for temporary use, then they will give it away.
Next, how will they pick it up when mulching? They come into contact only with the soil surface and cannot strongly consume nitrogen from it. when burying, yes, they can, but mulching and burying are different processes.

Exactly. The whole point is that fresh sawdust embedded in the soil becomes food for soil organisms, which need nitrogen to build their bodies from protein. There is strong competition between bacteria and roots.
But the gardener, frightened by the kind uncles with degrees, refuses to bring them to the surface of the soil, where on the soil-mulch border the process we all need takes place, the results of which go deep into the soil channels and are generally dragged into the soil by a worm.

I'm talking about sawdust tracking. In my very modest experience, sawdust cakes if they are very small. In the fall, I sprinkled several young strawberry bushes with small (very small!) Sawdust, so after the snow melted, they really seemed to be sintered into a single monolith - it was necessary to loosen.
And last year I mulched raspberries with medium and large sawdust - great!

* can sawdust be used as mulch in the greenhouse (fresh) growing tomatoes and peppers?
** It is possible and necessary, because sawdust is lighter and therefore serves as a screen against soil heating, and therefore from a significant increase in temperature and humidity in the greenhouse itself, which happens if the soil is mulched with dark mulch such as peat or is simply loosened, getting rid of weeds. So that sawdust does not create problems such as unauthorized intake of nitrogen, the mulch should be a thin layer, just to cover the soil.
*** And my experiment with sawdust was sharply negative. Perhaps the species of trees from which sawdust plays a role ... I did not have mulch and I decided to mulch the onion with sawdust ... And that's all ... My bow just did not die, barely grew. In short, there was no harvest ... And the sawdust itself was not rotted in the garden next year ... Perennial onions (batun, chives) were also mulched.And the picture is the same - and the land has not improved, and the harvest is poor ... Now sawdust only along the aisles between the beds, I have wide aisles, sawdust does not allow the grass to grow - it turns out clean and beautiful.

But straw, hay and leaves are another matter. In one season, they manage to overheat, the land has become crumbly and fertility has increased significantly. And we bought our site five years ago. The ground was completely empty.

* Of course, there are many nuances. But as I understand it, the primary role is played by the already existing soil living creatures in the ground. If there is a lot of it and it is diverse, sawdust is also included in the work: there is someone to work with.
I mulch the onion that has already risen well. We need to let the soil warm up. And without mulch, my sand instantly dries up to dust ... If you water it, the water rolls down from the garden in pellets ...
Disorder ...
Sawdust - I prefer to find wood chips from a planer. There the tree is already dried. Small ones, from a saw or a sawmill, I try not to use as much as possible.
Although you have to, where to go ...
***

Try to stand the sawdust for a year somewhere in the corner of the garden, pouring it with a herbal fermentor ...

Answer agrees that the amount of living creatures in the soil plays a huge role. Indeed, when she poured sawdust on her beds - what was the state of the land? Yes, nothing ... And at that time the main motive was to improve the composition and fertility of the soil. But alas ... the sawdust did not work and even vice versa ...

Now I use a different mulch in the beds - hay, straw, leaves. And sawdust is also very welcome, but I only fill up the aisles between the beds with them. This works great - dry, clean on the surface and damp on the inside. The worms are just crazy. Moreover, in our climate, sawdust in the aisles is re-peeled for several years ... The grass does not grow, I like it.


How to make a warm garden bed in the fall with your own hands

For a plentiful and early harvest, vegetable (and not only) crops are planted in greenhouses. There is an easier and relatively inexpensive way to get early fruits - a warm bed. The creation of a high insulated garden bed will not require any significant financial investments; you can build a structure with your own hands from scrap materials.

Heating of the soil in such structures occurs due to decomposition, decay of organic waste. There are a lot of positive aspects in growing vegetables in thermal beds:

1. Early shoots are protected from sudden spring cold snaps.

2. Weeds, as a rule, do not grow on them.

3. Plants in such structures do not need fertilization.

4. Waste vegetation, tops, fallen leaves are composted in warm beds.

5. The soil does not need additional processing.

6. A microclimate is created for quality growth.

Properties of a warm bed

The heating of the soil in the spring is much slower than the air. The design of the garden bed is filled with organic matter; during a thaw, the process of decay, rotting of the "filling" is activated, the waste products of bacteria (carbon dioxide and methane) create the so-called greenhouse effect. Due to this effect, the ground is heated much faster, therefore, seedlings appear earlier, the plants are protected, they are not threatened by recurrent cold snaps. Seeds and seedlings on tall, insulated beds can be planted two or even three weeks earlier.

Creating a thermal bed with your own hands

It is in the autumn that such a structure is being built. The size of the beds (length, width) can be arbitrary. Having decided on the dimensions, remove the fertile top layer according to the intended size. The pit is twenty centimeters deep. Throw the soil aside, you will still need it. The resulting depression will be a drainage cushion. The next step is to make a box. The height of the sides is 50-70 centimeters. Further, the drainage cushion is filled with hard plant waste, it can be branches after tree pruning, cut raspberries, currants, wood chips, large debris and the like.

Organic, plant material, weeds, shavings, sawdust, fallen leaves, all kinds of cleaning are placed on top of the drainage. Eliminate the tops of nightshade plants - potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, and so on.

The next, third layer is laid compost at the stage of decay, manure or unripe humus. At this stage, alkaline additives are introduced - dolomite flour, garden chalk, slaked lime, lime dust. Before adding these components, clarify whether the plants need it. There are crops that prefer acidic or slightly acidic soil. Test the soil for acidity, find out exactly its pH. Soil with a neutral indicator should not be alkalized.

The final layer will be the land that was thrown back at the beginning of construction. Apply fertilizer before laying it. The best option would be a complex feeding "Nitrofoska" - use according to the instructions on the back of the box. Add superphosphate at the rate of twenty grams per meter in a cube of earth, wood ash, leaf - a couple of glasses for the same amount of soil.

Preparing for sowing

In the spring, when the snow melts, pour hot water over the soil surface. Cover with cellophane wrap, agryl or agrarian linen. In about a week, in a maximum of ten days, the process of "burning" of organic matter will begin. In this case, heat will be released, you can start planting crops. As a rule, cucumbers, pumpkins, zucchini, peppers, and eggplants are grown on a warm garden bed, but in principle, any heat-loving plants can be planted.

Thus, the construction of a warm bed is carried out with your own hands. Planting crops in such a structure will ensure early ripening of the fruits. Seedlings will be under reliable protection during return frosts in the spring.


Creation of beds taking into account crop rotation. High beds

Formation of ridges taking into account crop rotation... How to build beds. How to create a tall garden bed in the country.

In places of construction of a residential building and ancillary premises, the device of footpaths, it is necessary to first remove the fertile soil layer, which should be transferred to the area allocated for the garden and vegetable garden.

Vegetable crops are preferred grow on the ridges and ridges, if the groundwater on the site comes close to the surface, if the depth of the arable layer does not exceed 15 cm, if the site is located in low or damp places where water stagnates in spring, where the soil is highly moistened during summer and autumn rains. It is advisable to arrange combs when growing on heavy clay soil such thermophilic crops as cucumbers or zucchini. During autumn tillage, it is necessary to mark with pegs the places where ridges and ridges will be arranged. Here you should sketch the earth from the places where the passages will be located.

TYPES OF BEDS

Ridges for vegetable crops can be made of various widths. They need to be arranged with a width of no more than 100 cm, although some gardeners prefer to make beds up to 120-150 cm wide, considering it the most convenient. The large width of the ridge makes tillage and plant maintenance very difficult. Between the ridges, paths are left with a width of about 30-40 cm.

Combs up to 35 cm wide should be arranged at the same distance from each other. In length, ridges and ridges are able to be of any size. Usually, the length of the ridges is determined based on the total area under the cultivated crop.

The height of the ridges and ridges should be chosen depending on the nature of the soil, quite often it is 10-25 cm. The only requirement for the height: the layer where the plant roots are located must be at least 35 cm thick.

Ridges and ridges should be well shaped with a level surface. This can give the site a neat appearance and gain the ability to obtain even seedlings.

The arrangement of ridges and ridges allows gardeners to start work earlier in the spring, because the sun warms them up faster. During the day, on ridges and ridges, the soil temperature is 2-3 ° C higher, and at night, 1-2 ° C lower than on a flat surface. This difference in temperature should be taken into account during spring frosts.

Sowing holes should be made across those ridges that are located from north to south. If the ridge has a direction from east to west, then the holes should be placed along the ridge. Thanks to this arrangement of the rows of plants, they will receive better sunlight.

Many gardeners prefer to arrange high beds for planting various garden crops. They have some advantages over conventional low beds. On them, the earth dries out and heats up faster, which allows you to sow seeds and plant seedlings earlier. When carrying out agrotechnical measures over a high bed, there is practically no need to bend over, which greatly facilitates work. In addition to these advantages, from a high bed, you can get several harvests in 1 season (see fig.).

High bed device

For the construction of a high bed, it is required to prepare boards of durable wood, a fine-mesh metal mesh, strong plastic wrap and screws. All these materials will be used to make a special box for the garden. Healthy pruned and shredded tree branches, sod, semi-mature compost and other components are useful for filling it.

On the territory allotted for the garden bed, you need to dig a hole 30-40 cm deep, install the prepared box in it, cover its walls with a film, and place a fine-mesh mesh on the bottom. Then lay the prepared filler components in layers: shavings and other wood waste, shredded branches, newspapers, cardboard, sawdust, fresh garden waste. From the compost heap, you can take and place rotten autumn leaves, semi-ripe compost on top. Cover all layers with garden soil mixed with prepared compost. A tall bed should be freshened every year, the top layer removed and replaced with a fresh mixture of garden soil and compost.

Instead of compost, it is permissible to use manure, although it is better for novice vegetable growers to refrain from using it. Manure unnecessarily speeds up the process of forming a fertile layer in the garden. It contributes to the concentration in the soil of a huge amount of nutrients that stimulate the growth of cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage and pumpkin. However, these substances adversely affect the condition of beets, lettuce and spinach, and contribute to an increase in the content of nitrates in them.

Therefore, in the 1st year, it is more expedient to place actively feeding crops on a high bed. In the second year, plant leafy vegetables, roots and herbs that do not need a lot of nutrients. In the fall of next year, both leaf and head lettuce can be sown in the garden.

Garden crops that grow in tall beds need to be watered frequently and abundantly during the summer months. The loose layer of such structures allows water to pass through easily. Insufficient watering leads to dehydration of plant tissues. The required water regime is easy to maintain through the use of drip irrigation using special hoses. During the rainy season, plants in high beds do not particularly suffer from excess moisture: it easily seeps inside.

Sometimes on the personal plot, convex beds with narrow aisles are arranged. This allows you to efficiently use the usable area. Such beds are indispensable in a small area when growing a large number of garden crops.

➣ If it is not possible to remove plant residues after vegetable crops, then when digging the soil, they must be sealed to the maximum depth.

For the device of a convex bed in the allotted area, a recess should be made. To protect garden crops from vole mice, place a wire mesh on its bottom. Lay bricks along the edges of the bed so that the mesh is more firmly fixed. Pour a layer of crushed wood (wood chips and shavings) on top, which forms the "filling" of the bed. Then lay the plant residues and decayed foliage in a thick layer. At the very top, you need to place semi-ripe compost, mixing it with garden soil.

The side surfaces at the bottom of the bed must be flattened. Arrange a longitudinal groove on top, which will hold rain and irrigation water.


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