Seedling cabbage: how to successfully plant it in open ground

 Seedling cabbage: how to successfully plant it in open ground

Growing healthy cabbage seedlings is the first challenge the gardener faces on his way to harvest. The next problem is how to plant plants in open ground in a permanent place with minimal losses. There are subtleties here.

Preparing seedlings for planting

Before planting seedlings in open ground, it must be properly prepared. This process consists of several procedures. First of all, the regulation of watering, feeding and hardening:

  • stop watering a week before planting. Just before planting, about 2 hours, water abundantly;
  • 2 weeks before planting, feed with mineral fertilizers - dissolve a tablespoon of urea and potassium sulfate in ten liters of water, pour 150 grams per plant;
  • 15–20 days before disembarkation, start hardening - take out into the open air at a temperature of + 5–60From to a sunny place (duration of the procedure - 20 minutes with a daily increase in time by 5 minutes).

Before planting, water the seedlings and remove them from the box with a clod of earth

Landing dates

The timing of transplanting seedlings varies over a fairly long period of time. They depend on weather conditions, region of cultivation, varieties and types of plants grown. The general rules uniting all the conditions are as follows: cabbage should have 4–5 true leaves and a height of about 10 cm (this is at the age of 40–45 days); ambient temperature at night should not be lower than +50C. Tentative dates are May or early June. For planting, choose cloudy weather or perform work in the afternoon.

Site preparation

The growing area must be flat and well lit. The most acceptable are loamy soils with a neutral reaction. Legumes, root vegetables and cucumbers are good precursors for cabbage. All types of cabbage are demanding on soil fertility, therefore, when preparing the beds, you need to pay attention to fertilization.

Compost is an excellent organic fertilizer

In the fall, before digging, organic fertilizers are applied: manure, humus, compost at the rate of 1 bucket per m2... In the spring mineral - 1 tablespoon of urea, the same amount of superphosphate and a glass of wood ash per 1 m2... If organic fertilizers were not applied in the fall, it must be done in the spring - humus significantly improves the structure of the soil. To save fertilizer, they can be placed directly in the holes or rows. In this case, add 0.5 kg of organic matter, a teaspoon of nitroammophoska, 0.5 cups of ash to one plant and mix everything well with the soil.

How to plant cabbage seedlings in open ground

You need to transplant seedlings with a lump of earth into the prepared hole. Its depth should be slightly greater than the size of the root system and ensure the plant is buried down to the lower leaves.

Planting seedlings in the ground

Seedlings of early varieties should be placed in a row every 25–30 cm, between rows 35–40 cm. For late varieties of white cabbage, which has large forks at maturity, the distance in a row should be increased to 0.5 m. Planting should not be thickened - these plants photophilous.

How to plant correctly - video

Bright sunlight can damage fragile plants, so it is advisable to shade the first few days of the garden.

After planting, the seedlings need to be watered and, to prevent cracking of the top layer, sprinkle the holes with dry soil.

Care of planted seedlings

Water the planted cabbage every 3-4 days, 2-3 liters of water for one plant. After about a month, irrigate once a week at 10-12 liters per m22, if the weather is hot, then twice. Good results when growing vegetables are given by the use of drip irrigation systems. In this case, watering can be carried out at any time of the day (not only in the morning or in the evening).

Watering planted seedlings

Loosening of the soil should be carried out after each rain or watering. Its depth should be about 7 cm. When loosening, so that the irrigation moisture does not spread, you need to correct the holes.

The first feeding should be carried out 2 weeks after planting. During this period, the most effective will be the use of complex fertilizers, which include macro- and microelements. Now there are special feeding for various types of seedlings, they can be very useful, of course, with strict adherence to the instructions. If there are no such fertilizers, then use infusions of mullein (1: 5) or bird droppings (1:10), 0.5 liters per plant.

The second feeding - 10 days after the first. Apply a mixture of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride (1: 2: 1) at the rate of 40-60 g / m2.

In order to prevent the appearance of pests (snails, slugs, aphids), the plants and the soil around them are powdered with wood ash - one glass per m22.

Wood ash serves as fertilizer and pest prevention

Best companion plants

The correct selection of plants that are planned to be planted nearby contributes to the better development of cabbage and, to some extent, protects against diseases and pests. These crops include lettuce, celery, leeks, and beans. Dill planted next to it will improve the taste.

Cabbage compatibility with other vegetables: examples in the photo

Many types of cabbage are grown in our fields and gardens - these are white and red cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts. All of them have a similar cultivation technique and if you follow such simple recommendations, the quantity and quality of the harvest of any of them will be slightly higher.

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Air and soil temperature

When determining the timing of planting seedlings, it is necessary to measure the temperature of the soil and compare it with the weather forecast for the coming days - if the soil temperature is insufficient, but next week it will be warm, then it is worthwhile to wait with the planting of seedlings until the soil warms up.

The fact is that at low soil temperatures, seedlings of vegetable crops experience stress: the development of the root system and aboveground parts of plants is delayed, leaves fall, roots can rot, etc. In cold soil, the adaptation period of plants is stretched, diseases attack and fruiting is postponed indefinitely.

Therefore, it is better to wait a few days while the soil warms up than to plant the plants in cold ground. Optimum soil temperatures have long been measured by experienced gardeners:

  • Eggplants are planted at a soil temperature of + 18 ° C, air + 20 ° C. After planting eggplant seedlings, it is important that the soil temperature does not drop below + 15 ° C.
  • Seedling onions love when the soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm is + 10 ° C and higher.
  • Cucumbers are planted when the soil has warmed up to + 16 ° С at night and + 18 ° С during the day. Lower temperatures inhibit the development of cucumbers, and at + 10 ° C, the growth of the green mass of cucumbers stops altogether.
  • The pepper is ready for planting in open ground after warming up the soil to + 15 ° C.
  • Celery ready for transplanting into open ground after warming up the soil to + 12 ° C.
  • Tomatoes (tomatoes) - seedlings are planted after the soil warms up to + 15 ° C and above.

When to sow cauliflower seedlings in 2021

Planting dates depending on the variety

Like any vegetable crop, cauliflower has an early-medium to late-ripening variety. Early varieties are sown from the last days of February. Depending on the region, the sowing is stretched until the beginning of April.

Seeds of cultivars of middle ripeness are in no hurry to sow. They do this closer to mid-March and stretch the work until mid-April. Seeds of late varieties are usually sown in April.

On a note.
The approximate age of cauliflower seedlings suitable for planting in the ground is from 42–43 to 55 days.

Planting time for cauliflower seedlings, depending on the region

Sowing dates depend on the region of residence. The farther north you live, the soil and air on the site and even in the greenhouse are warmed up later. And the less sense it makes to rush to sowing.

The most favorable region for growing cauliflower. The warm season in the middle lane is enough to have time to harvest. Any variety can be grown, but the emphasis should be on early and middle cultivars. Although late varieties in very warm seasons with early spring and late autumn also work well.

Sow cauliflower from late February to mid March, this is the optimal period.

Sowing dates according to the lunar calendar 2021

Gardeners take into account the timing of sowing cauliflower seeds according to the Lunar calendar.

MonthFavorable days for planting cauliflower seedlingsBad days
February2, 3, 4, 5.13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23 and 24 numbers. 10, 11, 12 and 27 numbers.
March1, 2, 3, 4, 17, 18, 22, 23, 29, 30 and 31 numbers. 12th, 13th, 14th and 28th.
AprilApril 8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 25, 26 and 28. April 11, 12, 13 and 27.

When to plant cauliflower seedlings in a permanent location

Seedlings of cauliflower are transplanted to the site when the soil warms up and the risk of recurrent frosts will be minimal.

RegionDates of disembarkation to a permanent place
SouthThey are planted very early, as early as March.
CentreTowards the end of May, at the beginning of June.
North and UralAt the earliest mid-June, it is best to grow cauliflower in a greenhouse.

Planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse

Information! Tomatoes are not recommended to be planted after eggplants, tomatoes, peppers, physalis.

Tomato seedlings are ready for transplanting at the age of 60 days in the presence of a well-developed root system, a height of 25-35 cm and the presence of 8-10 leaves.

Seedling preparation

Before disembarking, you need to decide on the date in order to carry out the necessary measures on time:

  • harden the seedlings by taking them (7-10 days before transplanting) to the balcony, loggia, outside, opening the window, gradually lowering the temperature and increasing the time spent at these temperatures
  • in the morning, 5 days before transplanting, spray with a solution of boric acid (1g per 10l) - this will help the plants not to lose their buds
  • 2 days before transplanting with a sharp knife, cut off 2-3 lower leaves, leaving small stumps so that they do not rot when they fall under the ground
  • it is good to water the seedlings on the day of transplantation.

Seedling planting schemes

The root system of tomatoes is demanding on soil temperature and does not tolerate cold well, therefore, for seedlings, you need to prepare beds raised above ground level by 20-25 cm.

The number and length of the beds depend on the size of the greenhouse, the width is chosen such that it is convenient to handle the bushes, water and harvest. For example, for a greenhouse with dimensions of 3x6m, the following options are possible:

  • ridge width 1-1.2 m - equip 2 ridges with a wide passage between them
  • width 0.6-0.7 m - 3 ridges with two passes.

For growing in a greenhouse, bushes of medium height and high are preferred - it is convenient to carry out a garter, give a good harvest and bear fruit for a long time in greenhouse conditions. Planting low-growing tomatoes is advisable only for early varieties, when other crops are planted in their place after harvesting.

For planting on two ridges, you can choose the following schemes, taking into account the height of the bush:

  • plant low bushes in a checkerboard pattern at a distance of 40 cm between them and a row spacing of 50-60 cm, a passage between the ridges - 80 cm
  • distance between bushes of medium height - 30cm, row spacing - 60cm, passage width - 80-90cm
  • plant tall bushes in a checkerboard pattern at a distance of 50cm and a row spacing of 70-80cm, aisle width of 80-90cm.

For planting on three ridges, the following schemes are possible:

  • when planting in one row, plant undersized bushes at a distance of 40 cm between them
  • plant medium-high bushes in a checkerboard pattern at a distance of 50 cm between bushes and 30 cm between rows
  • plant tall bushes at a distance of 50 cm when planting in one row, the width of the passage is 50-60 cm.

Important! On adjacent beds, plant the bushes in a checkerboard pattern to achieve maximum lighting and ventilation.

How to plant tomato seedlings in a greenhouse

For planting seedlings, dig holes in advance, 20-25 cm deep, put in each humus and a handful of ash, water well. After absorbing moisture, place the bush in the hole perpendicular to the ground, spread the roots, sprinkle with earth and compact, water. Place tall bushes at an angle.

Install pegs for tying at the same time, so as not to injure the roots in the future.

For better rooting, seedlings are not recommended to be watered, loosened, fed until they take root.

Finish planting by mulching the soil to preserve moisture, retain heat in the spring.

At first, cover the seedlings with a film or covering material at night, and during the day, focus on weather conditions.

Information! Covering the beds with bottles of water will help to save heat - the water heats up during the day, and gives off heat at night.

Watering seedlings after transplanting

You need to start watering the plant after it takes root - after 7-12 days. It is not necessary to water earlier, since watering was abundant during planting and there is enough moisture in the soil.

Young bushes require 5-7l per 1m², older plants - 10-12l, and in hot dry weather - 15l per 1m².

Watering is best done in the morning or evening, using water at about the same temperature as the soil so that the plant is not stressed. When watering, try not to get on the leaves.

Top dressing

With a lack of nutrients, seedlings are formed incorrectly and, as a result, this will affect the quantity and quality of the crop.

Tomato seedlings react to a lack of potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, and by its appearance you can determine which substance is missing:

  • the stems look weak, the leaves are pale green - lack of nitrogen
  • with a lack of nitrogen, phosphorus is poorly absorbed - purple spots are visible on the leaves, fruits ripen slowly
  • lack of potassium affects the formation and growth of the stem, the leaves wither and die off due to the accumulation of ammoniacal nitrogen.

The first top dressing in a new place, tomatoes are received directly during transplantation - humus or compost and ash are introduced into the hole. Further fertilizing is carried out 14-21 days after transplanting, when the seedlings have already taken root, during flowering, during fruit setting and during fruiting.

Each of these periods requires different nutrients, and this must be taken into account when feeding. The amount of fertilizer depends on its composition and the age of the tomatoes.

Instead of adding humus and ash to the holes, you can use "green tea" immediately after transplanting.

The composition of dressings in different periods:

  1. "Green tea": a mixture of 5 kg of weeds, ash (1 glass), liquid mullein (5 l), dilute in 50 liters of water, leave for two days and bring the amount of liquid to 100 liters. Use 2 liters of infusion for each plant.
  2. After rooting: dilute nitrogen (125g), phosphorus (200g), potassium (75g) in 50 liters of water. Pour 1 liter of solution under each bush.
  3. Flowering period: liquid mullein (2.5 l), liquid bird droppings (2.5 l), potassium sulfate (100 g) diluted in 50 l of water. Pour 1 liter of solution under each bush. This composition can be replaced with a solution of nitrophoska (1 tbsp. L. Per 10 l), pouring also 1 l per bush.
  4. During the period of ovary formation, you can use one of the feeding options:
  • add a bucket of humus to 1m², pour on top with a solution of the preparation "Baikal" (10g per 10l), 0.5l per bush
  • water abundantly and put compost (2cm) under each bush
  • water each bush, trying not to get on the leaves, 0.5 l of a solution of the drug "Humat + 7" (1 tbsp. l. per 10 l)
  • pour under each bush 1 liter of daily infusion of ash (2 liters) and boric acid (10 g) in 10 liters.

Fruiting period: you can pour "green tea" using 1.5 liters per bush, or prepare a solution of superphosphate (2 tablespoons), liquid potassium humate (1 tablespoon) in 10 liters. The solution is required 1.5 liters per bush.

Nutrients can be delivered to the plant by spraying. This method works especially well during the flowering period:

  • insist for two days 0.5 liters of ash in 0.5 liters of water, strain, add 10 liters of water and spray the bushes in the morning or evening
  • for the prevention of diseases, spray with a solution of calcium nitrate (1 tbsp. l. in 10 liters).

Seedlings of zucchini and eggplant

These crops, like cucumbers, are very capricious in cultivation. The temperature of their normal development is 20-25 degrees. The first shoots of plants appear 10-15 days after sowing.

If the temperature drops, then seedlings may appear much later. Early ripening zucchini varieties bear fruit only 100 days after planting, which is why they are grown through seedlings.

Plants are transplanted into the ground, usually 60-65 days after sowing the seeds. The plant does not tolerate frost, therefore, it is better to plant eggplant seedlings in mid-March, and transfer to the ground at the end of May.

Planting cauliflower outdoors

If you are interested in how to grow a cauliflower crop without wasting time germinating seedlings and picking, then you will have to be patient. This method gives a low germination rate, and also significantly increases the head formation time. Regardless, growing cabbage with a seedless method can also be very successful. Moreover, such cabbage sprouts faster and is more tolerant of lack of moisture. Before planting, the seeds are prepared in the same way as for planting in peat pots, but before sowing they should still be powdered with hexachlorane. Seeds are sown in pre-prepared soil to a depth of 2-3 cm, the planting pattern is ordinary - 70x30. 3-4 seeds are placed in each hole, sprinkled with earth and slightly compacted.

The first shoots can be expected in 6-8 days. The biggest problem with all varieties of cabbage is the cruciform flea, which can completely destroy all seedlings in a matter of days. To prevent its appearance, young shoots should be treated with DDT and repeated every 10-14 days.

It is customary to compact cauliflower plantings with lettuce, radishes or dill, sowing seeds in lines between cabbage rows. Such a neighborhood will not only not interfere with caring for cabbage, but will also help to increase its yield.