Araucaria

Araucaria

The genus of plants Araucaria, belonging to the Araucariaceae family, has about 14 species. Araucaria is a coniferous plant that has hard, needle-shaped leaves. Its seeds can be eaten, while wood is used to make furniture.

Some of the araucaria species are cultivated as an ornamental plant near the Black Sea coast in the Caucasus. This tree is quite difficult to cultivate at low humidity, which is observed in most apartments, it grows best in greenhouses. With improper care, it gets sick, and sometimes this leads to its death. Araucaria is one of those conifers that can be cultivated indoors. It is grown as an ornamental deciduous plant, because it blooms extremely rarely at home. Araucaria is grown in compositions in winter gardens or in pots. Like all other conifers, it is able to purify the air.

Brief description of cultivation

  1. Bloom... Araucaria is cultivated as an ornamental deciduous plant; it blooms very rarely under indoor conditions.
  2. Illumination... The tree needs a lot of bright light, which must be diffused.
  3. Temperature regime... In the warm season not higher than 20 degrees, and in the winter months - from 10 to 15 degrees.
  4. Watering... During the growing season, watered abundantly, and in the cold season, the substrate is moistened only after it dries out to 2/3 of the depth.
  5. Air humidity... It should be high, so the tree is often and regularly sprayed with a spray bottle.
  6. Fertilizer... During the growing season, fertilizers are applied to the substrate once every 15 days. To do this, take a complex mineral fertilizer with a low calcium content.
  7. Dormant period... It begins in late autumn and ends with the onset of spring.
  8. Transfer... The procedure is carried out in the spring or in the first summer weeks. Young bushes are transplanted only after their roots no longer fit into the container, and older ones - once every 3 or 4 years.
  9. Soil mixture... It should include peat, sand, leaf and sod soil (1: 2: 1: 2).
  10. Reproduction... By cuttings and generative (seed) method.
  11. Harmful insects... Mealybugs and aphids.
  12. Diseases... The bush can get sick due to improper care or inappropriate conditions.

Araucaria: description, care and reproduction

Home care for araucaria

Illumination

Araucaria is a light-loving plant and needs a lot of bright light when grown indoors. However, it must be protected from direct sunlight. In the warm season, if you wish, you can move it outside, and you should choose a place that will be reliably protected from direct sunlight and precipitation.

It is best to put the bush in a place where the light will fall on it from two sides at once. In the event that the light falls on only one side, then in order for the crown to grow and develop evenly, the plant needs to be turned 90 degrees 1 time in 7 days.

Temperature regime

Indoor araucaria feels good only in the cool. During the summer, the air temperature should be around 20 degrees. In the cold season, it should be about 10 degrees, while the room should not be warmer than 15 degrees.

Watering

Throughout the year, well-settled water is used for irrigation. Make sure that the lump of earth in the pot does not dry out in the summer, as this can damage the plant greatly. In this regard, in the warm season, watering should be systematic and abundant, but liquid stagnation in the root system should not be allowed. In winter, watering should be more scarce and less frequent, especially if the bush hibernates in the cold.

Air humidity

The plant must be regularly moistened from a spray bottle, for this use well-settled water (at least 24 hours) at room temperature. Humidification of foliage is carried out all year round, especially if the wintering of araucaria takes place in a room in which there are working heating devices.

Fertilizer

During intensive growth, the plant is fed 1 time in 15 days and a solution of mineral complex fertilizer with a low calcium content is used for this, the concentration of which should be very low. Also, experienced flower growers recommend feeding it with mullein infusion every 30 days.

Araucaria transplant

Araucaria transplant is carried out only if necessary after the root system becomes very cramped in the pot. And this procedure is performed in the first half of spring or early summer. This culture does not tolerate transplantation quite well, in this regard, it is recommended to transplant only well-grown bushes.

Transplantation of adult bushes is carried out 1 time in 3 or 4 years, for this they use a wide pot, which is filled with a soil mixture consisting of peat, sod and leafy soil, as well as sand (1: 2: 1: 2). For this, you can also use a soil mixture consisting of sand, humus, peat, coniferous, deciduous and soddy soil, which are taken in equal parts. Do not forget to make a drainage layer at the bottom of the container, which will not allow water to stagnate in the substrate. Araucaria can be grown hydroponically if desired.

Reproduction methods

Growing from seeds

Only fresh seed material of araucaria has good germination, so it cannot be stored for a long time. Fresh seeds are sown immediately into separate pots, which are filled with an earth mixture consisting of sod, leaf and peat soil, and also sand (1: 1: 1: 1). Or you can use a substrate consisting of sand and peat, to which very little fine charcoal is added. Crops are watered with a small amount of water, and their surface is covered with a thin layer of sphagnum moss. Provide the crops with systematic ventilation and humidification from a spray bottle, while the air temperature should be about 20 degrees.

One should not wait for amicable seedlings, some seedlings may appear after 15 days, while others - only after a couple of months. After the root system of a young bush becomes very cramped in a pot, it is transplanted into a new, larger container.

Cuttings

For harvesting cuttings, the half-lignified upper branches of the bush are used. It is carried out in the first half of spring, while the cut is made a few centimeters below the whorl. The harvested cuttings are placed in a shaded place for 24 hours, then the resinous juice is removed from the cut and sprinkled with coal powder. In order for rooting to be successful, the lower part of the cuttings is treated with an agent that stimulates root growth. They are planted for rooting in separate pots, which are filled with a mixture of peat and sand (1: 1) or just sand. From above, the cuttings are covered with a glass jar or a cut plastic bottle. The cuttings are placed in a warm place (about 25 degrees) and systematically ventilated and moistened with a sprayer. Cuttings that are warm will give roots after a couple of months, but if the room is cooler, then the rooting process can take up to five months.

When the roots of rooted cuttings become very crowded in the pot, they will need to be transplanted into larger containers, while the soil mixture is used the same as for growing an adult araucaria (see above).

Testing THREE ways to root needles using the example of araucaria

Possible problems

If the araucaria is improperly taken care of, then the following problems may arise with it:

  1. After pruning, the growth of the bush stopped... If the upper part of the araucaria was injured during pruning, then in the future its development will be incorrect or its growth will stop altogether. Provide the plant with a sufficient amount of bright light, make sure that the room is not too cold in winter, and do not forget that the humidity should always be high.
  2. The bush dries and crumbles... If the lighting is too poor, and the humidity is low, then the needles begin to crumble at the bush, and the stems dry up and turn yellow. If it is too hot in the room or stagnation of water is regularly observed in the substrate, then the branches of the plant begin to droop.
  3. The growth of the bush is very slow... Araucaria grows and develops slowly if the soil mixture contains a lot of calcium.
  4. Very thin branches... Young branches will be too thin if the plant is fed irregularly.
  5. Harmful insects... Araucaria can harm aphids and mealybugs, as well as pests of conifers.

Araucaria species

Araucaria cook (Araucaria columnaris)

In nature, the species is found on Pine Island and in the tropical part of the southern New Hebrides. Short branches, collected in whorls, grow from the trunk at an angle of almost 90 degrees. The crown usually widens at the apex. The length of the cones is about 10 centimeters, outwardly they look bristly, because they have an awl-shaped appendage drawn from top to bottom. The needles are soft, the tapering of the upper part of the crown is very smooth. Most often this species is cultivated in subtropical and tropical countries.

Araucaria heterophylla (Araucaria heterophylla)

The plant comes from Norfolk Island, where it can reach a height of about 60 meters. The flaky bark is light brown. Due to the fact that the branches grow perpendicular to the trunk, the shape of the crown is pyramidal. The tetrahedral needle-like leaves are located on the branches in a spiral, they reach about 20 mm in length and bend slightly upward. Inexperienced growers often confuse this species with the tall araucaria (Araucaria excelsa).

Araucaria angustifolia (Araucaria angustifolia)

Or Brazilian araucaria (Araucaria brasiliana). The species grows in nature in the south of Brazil in its mountainous part. In nature, the height of a tree can reach 50 meters, and at home - no more than three meters. On hanging thin branches, linear-lanceolate leaf plates of a rich green color grow, reaching up to 50 mm in length. The wood of such araucaria is widely used in construction and in the furniture industry, and it is also used for the manufacture of musical instruments and paper.

Chilean araucaria (Araucaria araucana)

Such a plant can be found in nature in the western part of Argentina, and also in Chile. The height of the trunk can reach 60 meters, and its diameter can reach one and a half meters. Longitudinally spaced cracks cover the resinous thick bark. As a rule, the lower branches lie on the surface of the soil and over time they die off. Lateral branches are collected in whorls of 6–7 pieces. In middle-aged plants, such branches grow perpendicular to the trunk, and in older trees they hang slightly. Spiky and tough dark green leaf plates on the branches are arranged spirally and very densely. Healthy and delicious seeds can be eaten. Wood is widely used in construction.

Indoor spruce How to grow araucaria


Green and lush araucaria: types and nuances of growing at home

Araucaria is a tree that looks like a spruce, but has an exotic origin. The distribution area is south, from Australia to New Zealand. Despite its tropical origin, the plant is widely cultivated at home. True, indoor araucaria is much inferior in size to wild progenitors - it is a compact decorative Christmas tree in a pot. She will delight households not only on New Year's holidays, but throughout the year.


Description and origin

Many points on the world map are native to araucaria - New Caledonia, Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea, Norfolk Island and several countries in South America. This plant can also be found on the southern coast of Crimea and the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.

In the wild, araucaria, striking in their height (up to 75 m), form sparse light forests. But specimens adapted to room conditions grow up to 2 m.

At home, araucaria forms sparse forests

Very few conifers can be grown indoors. But araucaria is one of them. This tree belongs to evergreen conifers from the Araucariaceae family and has a little more than 20 species.

The plant was first described in 1789 and at the same time the name, well known to all lovers of indoor plants, was assigned to it - araucaria. The second name - indoor spruce - the tree received for its great resemblance to real spruce.

Araucaria spruce was named for its appearance.

Araucaria is a slow-growing tree with branches arranged in tiers and may sag slightly. Unlike pine, they have flat needle-shaped or linear-lanceolate needles. The leaves are hard to the touch. Plants are usually dioecious. Male cones are elongated, up to 20 cm long. Female cones are rounded, about 20 cm in diameter.

Young araucaria is covered with fluffy branches from the very base to the top. With age, the trunk begins to bare, and the crown becomes clogged with dry unopened branches and the plant loses its decorative appeal.

At home, araucaria wood is used in construction, making crafts and furniture, and the seeds of the plant are suitable for food.

It is not easy to grow araucaria at home. Born in high altitude and humid climates, she needs a similar atmosphere in her room. And in the apartment, the araucaria will be limited to a small space. In addition, the plant is very fond of freedom and fresh air. Suitable conditions can be provided for indoor spruce only in botanical gardens or greenhouses. Although, if you try very hard, nothing is impossible.

Table: types of araucaria (Chilean, Brazilian and others)

Views Description
Chilean araucaria A tall tree with a height of 60 m, a trunk girth of 1.5 m. The branches are thin, covered with hard and thorny leaves of a dark green color tightly pressed against each other. Young trees have a wide-pyramidal crown, the lower branches can descend to the ground. The adult plant is covered with resinous and thick bark with longitudinal cracks.
Brazilian araucaria
(or narrow-leaved)
The only species sold as a houseplant. The branches of indoor spruce grow at right angles to the trunk, which reaches 60 m in height. The crown of the plant is lush, pyramidal. The leaves are needle-like, but soft, densely strewn with branches. The needles cleans the air well.
Columnar araucaria
(or Cook's araucaria)
Large, up to 50 m, plant with thin hanging branches. Leaves of bright green color are up to 5 cm long and linear-lanceolate. Grown as a houseplant. In greenhouses, it reaches 3 m in height. In nature, it forms a light forest, in the undergrowth of which the famous mate tea grows. Wood is also used for the manufacture of musical instruments.
Araucaria varifolia
(or indoor spruce)
Majestic, up to 75 m tall, plant topped with a narrow pyramidal crown. The relatively short branches extend from the trunk at almost right angles.

Araucaria is ideal for making bonsai. This effect is achieved through long-term shaping. A thirty-centimeter tree is obtained only after 10 years of hard work.

Photo gallery: varieties of araucaria

In nature, Chilean Araucaria can grow up to 60 m

Brazilian araucaria cleans the air well

Araucaria varifolia is called room spruce.

Araucaria is great for forming bonsai trees

Columnar wood is used to make musical instruments

Table: seasonal care

If the araucaria is indoors all year round, then during periods of high temperatures and dry air, you can additionally moisten the plant by covering the pot with wet moss or placing it on a wide pallet filled with wet expanded clay or pebbles.

Araucaria needs bright diffused light, shaded from sunlight


Varieties

At the moment, about 20 species of araucaria are known, of which only a few are suitable for container growing indoors.

The most popular option for growing at home is araucaria varifolia.

Otherwise, it is called "room spruce".

This is a rather delicate tree, in which the crown is pyramidal, and the needles are painted in a light, but quite bright shade of green.

The bark on the trunk is deep brown, slightly flaky. Young branches are covered with small scales, the length of which does not exceed 8 mm.

Other varieties of araucaria that can be grown at home are as follows:

Araucaria home care requires minimal, but certain agrotechnical points must be followed by the grower exactly.

An evergreen tree needs to provide the following conditions:

  1. Temperature regime: araucaria prefers coolness, in the summer season it is required to maintain temperature indicators no higher than 22 ̊С, and in winter the thermometer mark should not rise higher than 15 С.
  2. Air humidity: placing an evergreen tree near a battery or other heating devices is prohibited, since araucaria does not tolerate high temperatures and heat, the coniferous plant is rapidly depleted and subsequently dies.

So that the branches do not dry out and the needles do not crumble, it is required to periodically spray the plant with soft water.

Hard water can leave a whitish coating on foliage.

Spraying a coniferous plant is required 2-3 times a day, while the water should be slightly warm. It is recommended to install humidifiers in a room with araucaria.

The room with the "home spruce" must be regularly ventilated and, if possible, the plant must be periodically taken out into the open air.

  1. Illumination: indoors, the "home spruce" feels comfortable in case of sufficient lighting, but direct sunlight is undesirable.

Also, the plant can thrive in the shade, but not as well. To create diffused light, it is advisable to cover the windows with tulle, paper or matte film.

In order for the trunk to grow evenly, it is required that the light falls on the plant evenly, for this you need to periodically rotate the pot or provide the same illumination of the "home spruce" from all sides.

  1. Watering: the water must be soft and warm.

Watering should be abundant and cover the entire soil, drying out is unacceptable - the soil in the container must be kept moist, but it is also impossible to overfill.

Before watering the araucaria, you need to make sure that the top soil layer is already slightly dry after the last wetting. Excess fluid must be removed from the pan.

In the cold season, it is required to reduce the intensity of watering.

  1. Top dressing: Araucaria requires fertilization during the spring and summer seasons.

In case of a lack of nutritional components, the plant is gradually depleted, which can be the reason for the death of the "home spruce".

For feeding a coniferous plant, it is possible to use an ordinary mineral fertilizer in ½ the volume recommended by the manufacturer.

The frequency of feeding is once every 2-3 weeks. Top dressing is done after watering the plant.

The fertilizer should contain potassium and phosphorus, the plant reacts poorly to calcium, the development of araucaria slows down, this element should be in minimal volumes.

  1. Substrate: A standard coniferous substrate is required.

It is possible to prepare the soil yourself: sod land, leafy soil, sand and peat in the proportions 1x2x1x2.

  1. Flowering period: inflorescences look like small cones or upward "earrings".

Only adult specimens can bloom and only in natural conditions, when grown in a container, "home spruce" does not bloom.

The plant periodically needs a transplant. But, immediately after purchase, it is undesirable to subject the plant to this procedure, since the "home spruce" transplant does not tolerate well.

Transplanting a coniferous plant is required only after the root system has completely entwined with an earthen ball, which happens 1 time in 2-3 years.

The transplant is carried out by the transshipment method. It is forbidden to clean the rhizomes from the ground - this leads to the death of the plant. The pot should be medium. If you want the "home spruce" to grow more, then the capacity is taken increased.


Growing problems

Needles dry and fall

The plant is overdried. You need to water regularly, keeping the earthen lump in a slightly damp state. At the same time, remember that overflow is also harmful. The reason may also be that the room is too hot.

The lower branches fall

The fall of the lower branches can be associated with stress after transplanting or unfavorable conditions of detention: insufficient light, dry and hot air, especially in winter.

At the same time, the loss of the lower branches in araucaria is a natural process if a small number of them fall off. With age, the lower part of the trunk is exposed.

The needles turn pale, the branches wither and fall

Possible bay, transplant in the wrong period (winter), lack of light. Maybe the araucaria was exposed to hypothermia, was in a draft. Often it is not possible to save such a plant.


Watch the video: Norfolk Island Pine Seeds - Araucaria heterophylla HD 04