The olive is an evergreen tree about seven meters high, otherwise referred to as the olive. When the trunk of the plant reaches a height of one and a half meters, it divides into thick enough curving branches, which eventually form countless shoots. The bark of young olive trees is light gray, while the bark of adults is dark gray with streaks. The deciduous part is wide and dense.
The leaves of olives are specific in color: the upper part is characterized by a dark green color, and the lower part is gray. The leaf plate is narrow, dense, leathery. The shape is oval or lanceolate. The edges of each leaf are slightly raised, thereby reducing the surface area heated by the sun's rays and increasing the plant's tolerance to prolonged droughts. Once a year or two, the evergreen leaves change. At the base of the leaf plate is a kidney, which is capable of being in a state of sleep for a long time. But if there was a pruning of shoots or excessive damage to the leaves, it instantly wakes up and enters the phase of active growth.
The flowering period of the olive tree is from mid-spring (April) to early summer (June). The flowers are white, small in size, collected in racemose inflorescences, bisexual. The presence of male flowers with stamens is also possible. The most favorable for increasing the productivity of trees is the presence of nearby olives, which can cross-pollinate.
Olive fruits are elongated, oval in shape with a large stone and medium juicy oily pulp. The color is deep purple, almost black, and the weight is approximately 14 grams. Fruits reach ripeness in the period from October to December.
Where does the olive plant grow?
The olive tree is common in areas where winters are warm enough, and summers are dry and hot (subtropical climate, southeast Mediterranean). The plant is able to tolerate short current frosts normally within ten degrees. There is no wild-growing form of this plant. The culture grows in South America, Mexico, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Crimea, Australia.
Good conditions for the growth of olives are considered to be loose soil with low acidity and sufficiently drained, as well as bright sunlight. The olive tree does not feel a great need for abundant watering and high humidity of the environment, but leaf dropping will be a protective reaction to severe drought. If, shortly before the beginning of flowering (a month and a half), the plant needs moisture and microelements, then the yield will decrease due to the small number of formed buds. But cross-pollination will help to correct the situation with the crop.
Areas of application of the olive tree
Allocate about 60 types of olive trees in botany. But only the fruits of the European olive give about 30 kilograms of harvest per season and are of economic importance.
Olives are highly valued as a food product. They are used to prepare oil, which contains a very large amount of vitamins and minerals vital for the human body. This oil is widely used in cooking, medicine and cosmetology. Among the countries that actively produce and sell olive oil, Greece, France, Spain, Italy and Tunisia have proven themselves well on the market.
Unripe fruits are green in color, they are used in various canning options. Mature ones are colored black and complement a variety of dishes.
The yellow-green wood of the olive tree is quite sturdy and heavy. It is used in the manufacture of furniture due to the fact that it is easily subject to various types of processing.
All components of the olive are used in alternative medicine as raw materials for medicinal decoctions and tinctures. The flowers and leaves of this plant are harvested and then dried in the sun or in a well-ventilated area. The fruits are harvested as they ripen, more often in the fall.
The olive tree can be an excellent ornamental plant, decorating your home or garden with its presence. A powerful root system is used to protect the land from landslides and erosion by planting olives in the required areas.
In ancient Egypt, the olive began to grow about six thousand years ago, it was considered a sacred plant that was sent by the gods. Olive vine wreaths adorned the heads of the Olympic champions.
Also, the branch of the olive tree is a symbol of truce and peace. Islam reveres the olive as the tree of life.
The average growth time of an olive is about five hundred years. The longest life span of this tree is two and a half thousand years. Today in Montenegro a tree grows two thousand years old.
Olive, blank for the handle of a knife
A bar of olive wood in the size of 130x40x25-30mm. If you need polished bars, please indicate at h ..
Oliva 50x50x80mm, blank for smoking pipe
Olive block 50x50x80mm. Ideal for carving or making a smoking pipe. ..
Oliva, set from 2 blanks for lining
A pair of olive dies 130x40x10mm each ..
Olive 130x40x4.5-5mm, 4pcs. blanks for creativity
leaves 130x40x4.5-5mm. 4th sheet. ..
The branch of this tree was entrusted to the dove of peace
The answer to the question "The branch of this tree was entrusted to the dove of peace", 5 (five) letters:
Alternative crossword questions for the word olive
Definition of olive in dictionaries
Examples of the use of the word olive in literature.
Again the same pale dry fields with sparse ears - here, at this height, even more reminiscent of the north, located along the hillsides in semicircular tiers - holes, as the villagers of Vinci expressed themselves - skinny vineyards, not thick, not bright grasses, flying around poppies , dusty gray olives, strong black branches of which shuddered shortly and painfully from the wind.
And now, - said Jonathan, - you and Lee, starting from this olive tree, will come to that bush, where you will unexpectedly see a yellow jellyfish and catch it.
Climbing the hill, Jani climbed the very olive tree on which he was expecting the appearance of the Finch family, and the rest lay in its shadow.
And looking back at the lake, one could see a beautiful panorama, framed by a border of coconut palms, approaching close to the water surface, and three miles further, on the other side, was the picturesque village of Nogueira, whose houses looked out from the dense foliage of old olives.
And Okirroe sang a song: - Near Boibey Lake, or there, at the Amyros springs, or where Lefey flowed near Tricke, where there are granite gates to the sea, where there are olives, and apple trees, and pears, where there are lemon and orange groves, gave birth to a sparkling Oigla, nicknamed Koronis, Asclepius.
Source: library of Maxim Moshkov
European olive or olive tree
European olive or olive Tree (lat. Olea europaea, Olive family) is a slow-growing, evergreen, fruiting tree or shrub that lives in a subtropical climate. Oliva is rightfully called one of the oldest horticultural crops on Earth. Its homeland is presumably the territory of Asia Minor and Syria, where wild olives can still be found. They form real forests near the Mediterranean Sea, on the southern coast of Anatolia.
The olive tree is an important element of the Mediterranean vegetation and cultural landscape. Olive groves are partly found in some coastal areas of the Black Sea region that are not exposed to extreme climatic conditions. After the colonialists conquered the New World, olives began to be grown in the appropriate climatic conditions of the Americas. The first olive tree was planted by the Spanish conquistadors in 1560, in Lima (Peru), from where the culture spread to Mexico, USA (California), Hawaii. Today, olive plantations can also be found in Australia, South Africa, and Japan.
All olive growing areas are located between 30 ° and 45 ° north and south latitudes. The most optimal for them is the climate close to the Mediterranean, that is, the average annual temperature is +15. 20 ° C and the annual rainfall ranges from 500 mm to 700 mm (with a required minimum of 200 mm). Trees are highly heat- and drought-resistant, but they suffer greatly in cold winters from destructive low temperatures. The prolonged effect of even moderate frosts threatens not only the crops of individual years, but also the existence of entire plantations. An example of this is the severe cold snap in Eastern Europe in February 1956, which destroyed millions of olive trees in southern France, Italy and Spain. The northernmost olive grove that currently exists is on the Isle of Anglesey, near Wales, in the Irish Sea.
The name "olive" comes from Latin Olivummeaning "olive fruit", "olive tree", which, in turn, may have been taken from the archaic Greek ἔλαιϝον (élaiwon) such that in classical Greek ἐλαία (elaía) has the same meaning: "olive fruit", "olive tree". Today, in many languages of the world, the word "olive" is translated as olive oil.
The first evidence of the cultivation of olive trees in the Mediterranean basin dates back to around the 4th century BC. e. Olive pits and fragments of wood have been found during excavations of ancient tombs. It is known that in 3000 BC. e. the olives were grown commercially in Crete. The ancient Greeks, having studied the beneficial properties of olive trees, and especially their fruits, began to cultivate plants as a source of valuable vegetable oil. Of great nutritional value were the fruits of the olives themselves, which were consumed only after preliminary fermentation.
Today, olive trees are a very important agricultural crop. World olive plantations occupy more than 11 million hectares, which allows to receive about 23 million tons of olives annually, and every year there is a significant increase in these indicators. Traditionally, the largest producers are Spain, Greece and Italy, which grow almost 60% of all olives in the world. The dozens of leaders in olive oil production include: Algeria, Argentina, Egypt, the European Union (28 countries), Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Montenegro, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, Turkey and Uruguay. They provide up to 95% of the world production of this product.
Olives belong to heliophilic plants, so any shading has a depressing effect on them and significantly reduces the abundance of flowering. Trees also react badly to a decrease in temperature. Already at +3. 4 ° C, you can observe the drying of the tips of their shoots. And frosts down to -7. 10 ° C can cause significant damage to the culture, causing the death of its vegetative part. Strong winds, especially together with low temperatures and excessive rainfall, are also detrimental to the development of olive trees. These factors must be taken into account when organizing olive cultivation.
In addition to a sunny, warm and dry climate, olive trees prefer loose or medium-structured, well-drained, lime-rich soils. They can also grow on rocky and shallow rocky soils. Heavy soils prone to stagnant moisture cannot be used to grow olives. The culture is quite undemanding to the level of soil fertility: it can also grow on poor lands with a reaction far from neutral (pH 8.5. 9). Olive is one of the few crops that can grow in saline conditions, therefore it is often grown on sea coasts.
The root system of the olive tree develops depending on soil conditions, but the bulk of the adventitious roots is concentrated in the fertile layer, not deeper than 0.7 - 1 m.On loose soils, the main roots of the tree grow vertically, penetrating to a depth of 7 m, and in solid and on rocky ground, the root system is formed in the form of a superficial highly branched network. This feature of the plant explains its ability to withstand long (sometimes up to several months) dry periods. Olive trees survive long dry summers without damage, resuming their vegetative activity only with the onset of rains. The lack of moisture still negatively affects the quality of the crop. It is especially critical during flowering, fruit formation and growth.
The olive tree can reach a height of 10 - 20 m, but in industrial plantings it undergoes regular pruning for the convenience of harvesting, therefore the growth of a tree rarely exceeds 5 - 10 m.The life span of a plant is several centuries, there are specimens up to 1000 - 1600 years old and more ... Unlike other representatives of fruit trees, olives do not cease to delight with their harvest even at a thousand years of age. Having reached the industrial level of fruiting by the age of 50, olives continue to increase their productivity every year. And although old trees do not bear fruit every year, their yield is impressive.
With age, the olive tree forms a very branched crown over a short, but rather thick, knobby and hollow trunk, and the smooth gray-green bark, characteristic of young trees, cracks and acquires a dull dark gray, sometimes brownish-gray hue. Very strong, heavy and durable olive wood has a beautiful texture, is easily polished, therefore it is used for inlays of expensive wood products, the production of wind instruments, furniture parts, carved crafts, souvenirs, kitchen utensils, etc.
The leathery leaves of the olive are lanceolate or oval in shape, reaching 4-10 cm in length and 1-3 cm in width. The upper surface of the leaves is colored grayish-green, and the lower one has a silvery color. During flowering, which, depending on the climatic zone, can occur from the end of April to the middle of June, racemose inflorescences of 10 - 15 pieces of small, but very fragrant, four-petalled flowers of white or cream color, pollinated by the wind, are formed on olives.
Fruiting in olives occurs no earlier than 3-4 years after planting, and full-fledged crops can be harvested on trees of nine or ten years of age. The fruit is a small ellipsoidal drupe, sometimes almost spherical, from 0.7 cm to 4 cm long and 1 to 2 cm in diameter. As they ripen, olive fruits change their color from light green to almost black with a purple or brownish tint. It is customary to call unripe, green fruits olives, and fully ripe, dark ones are olives. Canned olives are sometimes artificially made black by keeping them in alkali, then exposing them to oxygen and finally placing them in a solution of ferrous gluconate (E 579).
There are three areas of industrial olive cultivation. Depending on the ultimate goal, they are cultivated for: pressing the olive oil, growing table varieties of olives, or both. About 90% of the collected olives are sent for processing to obtain olive oil. This product is in great demand, therefore, even with the existing high competition of manufacturers, its price does not fall below $ 4200 / t (wholesales).
The pulp of ripe fruits of the olive tree is 50 - 70% water, it also contains vegetable fats (6 - 30%), sugar (2 - 6%), protein (1 - 3%), fiber (1 - 4%), ash (0.6 - 1%). The beneficial properties of olives are associated with their constituent vitamins A, group B (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, choline, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid), E, K and antioxidants. In addition, the fruits are rich in elements such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, selenium, zinc. High-value nutrients are found not only in the pulp of olives of varying ripeness, but also in their bones, which are completely processed in the gastrointestinal tract.
Table olives, depending on the degree of maturity, are classified into three groups:
1. Green olives are harvested at the stage of milky ripeness, when they reach full size, and their skin acquires shades from green to yellow.
2. Semi-successful or colored olives are harvested at the beginning of the ripening cycle, when their color begins to change from green to a multicolored palette of reddish-brown shades. Unlike ripe olives, the pulp of the fruit at this stage does not have pigmentation, only the skin is colored.
3. Olives or ripe olives are harvested at full maturity when fully ripe. Their color comes in different shades, from purple to brown or black.
Green olives are pretreated before being eaten, since their fresh pulp contains many bitter phenolic compounds, including. oleuropein... The fermentation process is carried out using an alkaline medium (2 - 4% NaOH solution), repeated washing with water, immersion in brine (8 - 12% NaCl solution), etc. As a result, oleuropein and other unfavorable phenolic compounds are washed out and decomposed. The process ends with the formation of metabolites from bacteria and yeast, such as organic acids, probiotics, glycerin and esters, which significantly improve the palatability of olives. Ripe olives are not always fermented. As the fruit ripens, phenolic substances are converted into other organic products, their level is significantly reduced, which makes ripe olives (olives) quite edible.
This method is quite long, but it allows you to see the entire development cycle of the tree and guarantees its high survival rate. Before planting, they are soaked for 12 hours in a solution of caustic soda. Then they are rinsed with water and planted in a pot with a diameter of no more than nine centimeters to a depth of two centimeters. The soil should be moist and nutritious. In addition, you should pay attention to the fact that the earth is loose, light. Such a mixture consists of leaf and sod land, sand, peat in equal volumes. Large, oblong-shaped olive seeds are planted in small (5 cm in diameter) pots no deeper than 1 centimeter.
You will see the first shoots in 2 months. At this time, you should carefully monitor the soil moisture. It is recommended to water the sowing as the clod of earth dries up and try not to allow it to become waterlogged or dry out. Seed germination is usually 40-50%. Often, the seeds do not germinate or give non-viable, weak shoots, which die after a short time. If we grow an olive tree from seeds, then the first fruits should be expected no earlier than ten years later. If you want to speed up the terms of fruiting or flowering, the grown seedlings must be grafted onto varietal plants.
Surprisingly, an olive tree at home can even be grown from a stone. True, in order to obtain a good result, it is necessary to carry out a long preparation process.
Planting and handling a flower olive tree
A home grown olive can live for over 10 years. If we take this indicator into account, then the owners of this plant have a logical question, whether it is necessary to transplant and how often to do it. First, let's figure out the intricacies of how to plant an olive tree for growing at home. First of all, choose the appropriate type and prepare the container. It must be large enough. If you do not grow a plant from a stone yourself, for example, but have already acquired a fairly mature tree, then the size of the pot should be at least 60 cm in depth and width. Since the olive does not like an excess of moisture in the soil, additional wide holes should be made in the flowerpot for the free release of excess water.
For planting a young olive tree, take loamy or sandy soil. As the plant grows, the old container may become small, so it is appropriate to transplant. At a young age, the olive tree is transplanted after a year. After 5 years - once every 2-3 years. To make the olive tree easier to survive all the work on changing the pot and soil, it is better to replant it using the transshipment method. This helps to carry out all the work as painlessly as possible for the plant, without damaging its root system. Also, when growing an indoor olive tree, transshipment helps to speed up its growth.
To carry out these works, prepare a pot that is larger in size than it was before, about 10 cm in diameter. Make large holes in it and fill the bottom with expanded clay or any other drainage material. Fill the pot up to 1/3 with a suitable potting soil. An earthen lump in an old flowerpot with a plant must be well moistened with water. Once the liquid is completely absorbed and the soil is moistened to the very bottom, carefully remove the tree along with the clod of earth and roots. Transfer it to a new pot, and cover the resulting voids with fresh earth.