Read the previous part. ← How to increase the productivity of greenhouses and greenhouses
For an accelerated harvest of early cabbage it is best to soak and germinate (approximately to the stage of one true leaf) its seeds in sawdust at home, followed by picking the seedlings into those already heated with biofuel greenhouses
For germination, the seeds are spread on a layer of moist sawdust, moisten them and place containers with inoculation (preferably mixed with a hydrogel) in ajar plastic bags. Moisten everything again if necessary. After pecking the seeds, the sawdust is sprinkled with a 3-4 mm layer fertile soil... When shoots appear, the containers are taken out of the bags and moved to insulated glazed loggias, covering them for the night (with precise temperature control), and they try to transplant the plants into the greenhouse in a short time. When diving, the seedlings are slightly buried in the ground and thoroughly watered with warm water.
With beets everything is simpler. Take flat containers and soak the seeds in them. This is necessary, since beet seeds release substances that prevent the emergence of seedlings, and only active moisture neutralizes these substances. Therefore, beet seeds should first be soaked in water, and then rinsed well. After this procedure, they will rise quickly and amicably. Then the seeds can be sown immediately, and if this is not yet possible, then they should be distributed for germination in flat containers with highly moistened sawdust and constantly monitor the degree of moisture. After germination for 2-3 days, the seeds are sown, evenly scattering them over the soil surface together with sawdust, and sprinkled with soil.
Further care of seedlings in the greenhouse
Crops and unpicked seedlings in greenhouses, they must be covered with a layer of thin covering material. In addition, arcs are installed on the greenhouse ridges inside the greenhouse and thick covering material is thrown over them. During the entire growing time, the plants are thoroughly watered and ventilated if necessary.
Planting of cabbage and beet seedlings is carried out approximately in mid-May or even at the end of May (everything is according to the situation and the weather). By this time, cabbage seedlings should have 4-6 true leaves and a well-developed root system, and beet plants should have 3-4 true leaves. The landing technique does not present any difficulties. The only thing that needs to be observed is maximum care so as not to cause injuries to the plants during transplantation. This is especially true for beets, because in the event of a break in the main root during planting, the beets grow "with a beard." In addition, when planting seedlings, it is imperative to straighten the roots of the plants so that they do not bend.
We grow seedlings of cucumbers, pumpkins and zucchini
Our mid-Ural summer is short - in spring frosts continue until mid-June, and in summer, already in early August, night temperatures begin to drop rapidly and often exhausting rains come. It is clear that in such conditions, most of the heat-loving crops have to be grown in seedlings and then planted in a greenhouse, otherwise no harvest will be obtained. And if there is still a place for cucumbers in the greenhouse or on the windowsill (after all, the main crop), then there is no place for zucchini and pumpkins, because greenhouse areas are limited (there is no question of a window sill).
but seedlings of cucumbersgrown at home, never turns out to be strong and does not give a full harvest, which means that this approach can be practiced only for a dozen plants, the fruits of which are intended for obtaining super-early products. Therefore, the bulk of cucumber plants are sown in greenhouses, as a rule, already in permanent places, because cucumbers cannot be transplanted. This approach requires a lot of space and is not beneficial from the point of view of the efficiency of the operation of greenhouse areas.
Concerning zucchini and pumpkin, then their seeds are sown by most of the Ural gardeners at the end of May, or even in June (of course, under improvised shelters), and the first crop of zucchini, for example, is received no earlier than mid-July. Since the beginning of August, the favorable period for the growth of squash and pumpkins is already coming to an end. Therefore, it is wiser to try to extend the season favorable for growth and development by improving the agricultural technology of their cultivation, which is generally not difficult, since these pumpkin crops are quite grateful, capable of pleasing with high yields for a long period. I think it makes sense to modify the approach to growing cucumber seedlings and adopt the technology of growing seedlings of pumpkins and zucchini, for which one cannot do without biofuel-heated greenhouses and greenhouses.
4-5 days before the intended sowing of seeds, they are soaked in the Epin growth stimulator or in the Krezacin preparation and then germinated in containers filled with moistened sawdust. After pecking the seeds, they immediately start sowing - it is impossible to tighten with it due to the fragility of the roots, which can be damaged. The optimum temperature for germinating seeds is + 24 ... + 26 ° C, the same daytime temperature is desirable for the further development of plants (night temperature + 18 ... + 20 ° C, but not lower than + 15 ° C).
Since all these crops react very painfully to transplanting, the seedlings must be grown in separate containers, and for pumpkins and zucchini they need a large enough size (ordinary cassettes and pots for seedlings will not work - they are too small). Honestly, the best results are obtained by using not pots or cassettes, but ordinary film milk bags, only in them in the lower part you will have to make small holes for water to drain. Over the years, I got the feeling that the seedlings in the bags are warmer, and therefore the plants in them develop much faster than their counterparts planted in ordinary plastic pots.
The planting containers are filled with loose fertile soil (preferably with a hydrogel). It must be preheated in the room to a comfortable temperature. Then seeds are sown in them (for reliability, two seeds in each container) and watered. The soil in the containers should be poured about 2 cm below their upper border, so that the seedlings that appear at the very beginning of their development are inside the containers, where (due to biofuel in conjunction with shelters) it will be warmer.
If the biofuel in a closed ground at the time of sowing the seeds has flared up, then the containers with the seeds are immediately placed in a greenhouse or greenhouse. If the heating is insufficient, then this can be done after a few days (but it is highly desirable before seedlings emerge on the soil surface), and temporarily you can place containers with seeds in a warm room with a temperature of + 24 ... + 26 ° C, for example, in a heated garden house. The technology of "planting" containers does not cause any difficulties - they are buried in the soil of the greenhouse ridge at such a distance from each other that it would be sufficient for the comfortable development of plants before they are planted in a permanent place.
Then the ridge is covered with plastic wrap, laying it directly on the soil, and carefully sprinkle the edges of the film with soil and press down with stones. After that, inside the greenhouse or greenhouse, arcs are installed for additional temporary shelter of plants and thick covering material is thrown over the arcs. It should be borne in mind that the operation of placing containers in closed ground and installing shelters must be carried out very quickly so that the low temperature outside does not have time to negatively affect the seeds that have hatched. This means that all the materials at hand (film, stones, arcs and covering material) should be at hand.
When the first shoots appear, which, depending on the circumstances, may occur in 5-7 days, it will be necessary to cut circular holes in the film above all containers and carefully cover everything again. Seedlings are watered with specially heated water as needed - usually 1-2 times a week, and in the presence of a hydrogel, of course, less often, which is very important, since watering due to weather conditions during this period is far from possible at any time.
Before planting in a permanent place, the plants are watered abundantly, placing them in buckets of warm water, after planting, they are watered again and immediately covered with a thin covering material, throwing it directly onto the plants. When planting zucchini and pumpkins in open ground in our conditions, we usually have to install temporary greenhouses over the plants and cover them with foil to protect crops from low temperatures. The film for a day in good sunny weather is slightly opened for ventilation, and the covering material is kept on the plants before they get stronger.
We organize mixed plantings in the summer
As noted above, you should not limit yourself to growing only tomatoes and cucumbers in greenhouses in the summer. It is much wiser to supplement them with other plants that are equally sensitive to heat. There are several options.
Together with tomatoes can be grown curly asparagus beans... Only 3-4 plants of such beans in a greenhouse will provide your family with this valuable product for the whole year, since the yield of beans in such conditions will be an order of magnitude higher than in the open field. Such a neighborhood will not harm tomatoes at all, moreover, it will contribute to an increase in soil fertility, because beans accumulate nitrogen in nodular formations on the roots. Therefore, bean plants are best planted in different places in the greenhouse between the tomatoes.
If you are not inspired by growing early spring greens in a tomato greenhouse, then combining tomatoes with beets can be a possible option. Of course, in this case we are talking about getting early beets, which at the beginning of summer can be used whole (both small roots and tops) together with sorrel and nettle in summer green soups or botvinja. In this case, the soaked beet seeds are sown in a greenhouse around mid-April in two rows along the side and covered with a covering material. By the time the tomatoes are planted, the beets will already begin to pour, and they can be pulled out as needed by thinning. Beets will not interfere with tomatoes, but the beets will have to be removed before the tomatoes begin to actively shade them.
For enthusiastic gardeners, tomatoes can become good neighbors melons and watermelons... True, this option is not suitable for any greenhouse, since tomatoes have to be actively ventilated, and drafts are contraindicated for melons and watermelons. Therefore, it all depends on the ventilation system in the greenhouse and the direction of the main winds. And if in a tomato greenhouse it will be possible to find an area protected from drafts, then melons and watermelons will feel great there.
Pepper and eggplant can become good neighbors of cucumbers in the greenhouse garden. True, given the lower height of these plants, they should be planted separately so that they do not fall into the shade zone of cucumber lashes. It is wiser to plant peppers on one side of the greenhouse entrance, eggplants on the other, and occupy the rest of the territory with cucumbers, planting them at some distance from peppers and eggplants. It is not worth planting eggplants and peppers together for two reasons. Firstly, eggplants do not really like the neighborhood of other plants, and secondly, they can strongly shade the pepper. When planting peppers, it should be remembered that here you can choose either sweet peppers or bitter peppers. Mixed plantings of sweet and bitter peppers are unacceptable due to their over-pollination and the resulting change in the taste of the fruit.
Corn gets along well with cucumbers, which, for example, does not yield crops in the Urals in the open field. But in a greenhouse, in a company with cucumbers, it will be quite possible to place a dozen corn plants. True, there are difficulties here. The fact is that corn plants will have to be planted in one row, and this will adversely affect its pollination and lead to the appearance of cobs with voids. To eliminate this, you will have to resort to artificial pollination, that is, manually transfer pollen from male flowers to female flowers. For this purpose, an old fluffy blush brush works well, although you can do with regular gauze. In addition, it is necessary to regularly spray the plants with fruit-forming stimulants ("Bud", "Ovary", etc.). Given the fact that such spraying has to be carried out for cucumbers, no additional work is required.
As practice shows, many vegetable plants get along well together - both in the open field and in the greenhouse. However, there are exceptions, which may be associated with both the negative influence of some plants on others, and with the peculiarities of agricultural technology, because of which it is not possible to combine plants on the same bed.
For example, the proximity of tomatoes and cucumbers in the same greenhouse is undesirable due to the different microclimate that has to be created for these plants. The fact is that, unlike cucumbers, tomatoes prefer dry air (with high air humidity, they are quickly affected by various diseases), they need more rare but abundant watering and frequent active ventilation. In turn, cucumbers love high air humidity and frequent low watering and hate drafts. In addition, tomatoes can tolerate lower temperatures than cucumbers. Do not plant in a cucumber greenhouse sage, and in tomato - fennel and peas, although the latter in the amount of several pieces makes sense to sow to cucumbers for an early harvest, which is important if you have children or grandchildren who love this delicacy. And, of course, you shouldn't plant it with cucumbers or tomatoes. potatoes, although such an idea may come to mind if you decide to grow it from seed or are trying to propagate several super-elite tubers of a valuable variety.
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
Photo by the author
Growing vegetables in a greenhouse
A high yield of cucumbers in a greenhouse can be obtained only on soil rich in organic and mineral fertilizers. Potting mixes are quite suitable for this purpose.
The soil mixture is poured with a layer of 12-15 cm on top of the previously prepared heated biofuel. During the growing season of plants, the layer of soil mixture is increased to 20-25 cm. With a limited amount of biofuel, it is introduced into grooves 35-40 cm deep and wide, and a layer of soil mixture is also poured over the manure. Optimum soil temperature during the period of plant growth -f-20-24 ° C. Planting seedlings at a soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm below + 17 ° C is unacceptable.
Cucumbers are planted with seedlings at the age of 25-30 days, hardened, unstretched, having four to five leaves. Seedlings are planted in winter greenhouses in the first decade of February, in spring greenhouses on biofuel and with technical heating - April 1-5, on biofuel without technical heating - April 20-25 in film greenhouses on one solar heating - not earlier than late April - early May ...
You can plant on ridges, preferably on ridges according to the 120X30 cm scheme: they provide good heating and aeration of the soil.
For the earliest dates of planting, the most shade-tolerant long-fruited parthenocarpic (not requiring pollination) hybrids are used: Moscow hothouse, Lada, Malachite, Stella, Dinzosi and Biryusa. For spring greenhouses, well-known varieties have shown good results - Altai early 166, Graceful, hybrids VIR 516 and 517, Nerosimy 40, which gives extended fruiting.
Hybrids of the Moscow Agricultural Academy. KA Timiryazeva with a short fruit - Zozulya (TSKHA-77), Aprelsky (TSKHA-98) and Cucaracha (TSKHA-761) —give good results in good lighting conditions (planting seedlings not earlier than April). These hybrids set fruit without pollination, although with pollination the yield is higher and it does not affect the shape of the fruit. The varieties Nerosimy 40, Marfinsky, Teplichny 40 (one or two plants) are planted as pollinators. Hybrids Pallas' cat (TSKHA-211), Relay (TSKHA-1417), Marathon (TSKHA-211a), Pomegranate (TSKHA-1043) with beautiful shortened fruits work well only with artificial pollination, and when bees fly - by bee pollination.
The well-known hybrids' Gribovsky 2, Maisky (Fj), zoned in the RSFSR for spring greenhouses, have also proven themselves well; the hybrids bear fruit amicably on the 46-50th day after seed germination.
Before planting seedlings, they give moisturizing watering (it is possible in the holes). A cube with seedlings is buried in the soil mixture by 3 / of the height so that the upper edge of the cube (or peat pot) protrudes slightly above the surface of the ridge. Plants are watered moderately and immediately the whips are thrown along a vertical trellis tied to a wire stretched along the row at a height of 1.6-1.8 m. For the trellis, the twine is cut in pieces of 2-2.5 m, the upper end is thrown over the trellis wire, and the lower one is tied with a free loop under the second or third real sheet.
The formation of a bush begins after the plants reach the phase of eight or nine true leaves, while 6oj new branches (scions) in the lower three or four nodes are completely plucked out ("blinded") at the very beginning of their formation. In the next four to five nodes, the lateral shoots are pinched onto one leaf and one cucumber. Above the fifth knot to the trellis wire, the lateral shoots are pinched onto two or three leaves (two or three fruits). Upon reaching the trellis wire, the main lash is twisted 2 times around the wire, tied up and pinched (Fig, 30). The two upper branches are lowered down to a level of 80-100 cm from the soil. Tying plants to the trellis is a crucial moment, a delay with it leads to a decrease in the size of leaves, a decrease in yield. If you do not leave a loop reserve for the thickening of the stem, the twine cuts into the stem, loosens. ' plant nutrition.
When cultivating cucumber on straw bales, it is necessary to leave a supply of twine (20-25 cm) for shrinking the bales. As the soil compresses and subsides, fresh soil mixture is poured onto the roots. In greenhouses, the soil under the cucumbers is not loosened so as not to damage the root system, but periodically a new portion of the soil mixture is poured in a layer of no more than 1-2 cm to provide air access to the roots. High productivity of cucumber plants is achieved due to timely plant care, strict maintenance of temperature, light regime (light is the leading factor), optimal soil and air moisture, mineral and air nutrition of plants. Daytime solar overheating can cause great harm to plants in the spring months, especially after prolonged bad weather, and parthenocarpic hybrids and TCA hybrids are the most vulnerable in this regard. In this case, it is necessary to periodically spray the plants with water, provide ventilation, and chalk spraying of the greenhouse.
Cucumber is a moisture-loving plant, but it is very picky about soil aeration. Lack of air in the soil, and this is observed with waterlogging, leads to the death of the roots. Soil moisture should be maintained at 60-80%. Plants should be watered especially carefully in winter: only on sunny days and in the morning and only with warm water (+ 20-25 ° C). Water should not come into contact with the leaves, so as not to cause sunburn. A greenhouse with an area of 15 m2 at the beginning of the growing season of plants usually consumes up to 5 buckets of water, during fruiting — 15–20 buckets. Water it 2 times a week, on hot, sunny days - every other day. In addition to watering, fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers is necessary. In the first period of the life of a cucumber plant, when it is necessary to quickly build up a powerful root apparatus, the leading role in mineral nutrition belongs to phosphorus, and during fruiting, nitrogen-potassium supplementation is needed. The application of organic and mineral fertilizers in dressings is alternated or combined. Before fruiting, 1 liter of mullein solution (1: 8), 10 g of urea, 30 - superphosphate and 10 g of potassium sulfate are added to 10 liters of water; during fruiting, the amount of urea and potassium sulfate is doubled. These mineral fertilizers can be replaced with a vegetable mixture or a complete mineral fertilizer with microelements: 60 g - before fruiting, 80 g - during fruiting. Foliar dressing with mineral fertilizers mixed with micronutrient fertilizers is effective - once a month.
For varieties that need pollination, artificial pollination is required in the initial flowering period before the bees. It is useful to open the vents and to attract bees, bumblebees, spray the plants with a weak solution of honey. The vents must be opened on one side, since cucumber plants cannot stand drafts: they stop growth, get sick with powdery mildew.
The air temperature in the greenhouse should be maintained at the level of + 22-25 ° С during the daytime.
Growing cucumbers in greenhouses on biofuel begins in the first decade of April (in the middle lane), while the soil temperature should be within + 20-25 ° С (not lower than + 17 ° С). Monthly seedlings are planted. Mainly short-stemmed varieties are used: Nerosimy 40, Murom and Altai early.
Four to six plants are planted under one frame. Grooves are made across the greenhouse, and longitudinal holes are made in their center, in which two plants are planted, tilting them in different directions. The free area near the greenhouse piping is occupied by seedlings for open ground or green.
Caring for plants consists in shaping them, creating a normal diet, heat, humidity, air exchange and lighting.
After harvesting the compaction plants, the soil is loosened, the growing shoots are bent, orienting them either to the north or to the south, soil is poured over them to form adventitious roots. The soil surface is mulched with a layer of humus of 3-4 cm. With irrigation water, fertilizing is applied: before fruiting - 1-2 times, during fruiting - every 7-10 days. With the onset of warm, sunny weather, ventilation is gradually increased, opening the frame or film from the side opposite to the wind. Plants are pollinated by bees, for which they also open frames in the morning hours.
Cucumbers are also grown in collapsible-adjustable shelters (URP) and other protected ground structures. Here, a two-line planting 1 - 90X50 cm is common. For this, the varieties Nerosimy 40, Altai early 166, Graceful, hybrids TSKHA-1, TSKHA-77 (Zozulya) are suitable. Before planting, they dig up the soil, apply manure (15-20 kg per 1 m2) and mineral fertilizers (100-120 g of garden mixture per G m2). These fertilizers can be applied to the furrows made in the center of the URS. The manure is covered with soil taken from the furrow and seedlings are planted in it. Depending on the variety and type of URP, four to ten plants are planted per 1 m2.
Care consists in maintaining optimal soil and air moisture, thermal conditions, fertilizing and adding soil to the plants. With a good filling of the soil with organic fertilizers, the first top dressing is carried out at the beginning of fruiting. In hot weather, the film is opened by rolling it upwind. It is not necessary to completely remove it in order not to reduce the humidity of the air. It is also impossible to allow overheating under the film.
The fight against plant diseases and pests must be carried out primarily with preventive measures. This work is carried out with the preparation of seeds for sowing, preparation of the soil and soil mixtures, as well as cultivation facilities and equipment for each season. It is easier to prevent any disease than to cure it. So, in order to avoid infection of cucumber plants with root rot, you need to use good-quality, pickled, hardened seeds, fresh soil mixture, adding well-decomposed, ventilated peat. The permanent use of the soil for cucumbers (as well as for all other crops) should not be allowed. It is necessary to water only with warm water (not lower than + 20 ° С). Maintain soil temperature not lower than + 20 ° С and not higher than + 30 ° С. If it is not possible to replace the soil, it must be disinfected with 1% potassium permanganate solution or 3% nitrafen solution 15-20 days before planting. At the first signs of root rot, the plants "rejuvenate" by bending and pinning the lashes with a light sprinkling of fresh loose nutritious soil mixture. After the appearance of new roots, additional bedding is made.
Inexperienced gardeners sometimes confuse root rot with physiological wilting of cucumbers, associated with improper agricultural practices of seedlings in pots with very dense soil, in which the roots cannot provide the plant with water and nutrients, as a result, wilting occurs, and then the death of plants. Some gardeners are fond of planting cucumbers on narrow and high ridges, where irrigation water does not linger. Plants wither, turn yellow and die from physiological wilting.
A common disease of cucumbers in greenhouses and greenhouses - anthracnose - • can be prevented by thorough cleaning and disinfection of greenhouses and greenhouses, annual replacement of the soil mixture, and seed dressing. Affected plants are sprayed with celandine infusion, 0.5% sulfaride solution, 1% Bordeaux liquid. Good results are obtained by treatment with a 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate (at the root), with a 0.1% solution of copper sulfate, the plants must be watered well beforehand.
The development of powdery mildew can be prevented by eliminating sharp fluctuations in night and day temperatures, and drafts should not be allowed either. Timely weeding of weeds, especially such as thistle and plantain, around greenhouses and greenhouses, cleaning of structures from plant residues, disinfection by fumigating with sulfur dioxide (burning 50 g of sulfur per 1 m3 of room), spraying with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, growing resistant to powdery mildew varieties, the creation of optimal growing conditions serve as preventive measures for the occurrence of powdery mildew. If a disease is detected, the plants are sprayed with a 0.5% sulfaride solution, a 0.2% suspension of colloidal sulfur every 7 days (about 20 treatments per growing season).
Measures preventing the development of bacteriosis (angular spotting) are: sowing with etched seeds, disinfection of greenhouses and hotbeds, changing soil mixtures, spraying plants with copper sulfate (4 g per 10 l of water). When a disease occurs, the plants are sprayed with a 0.5% sulfaride solution.
When growing vegetables, each gardener should strictly observe the rates of fertilization, especially mineral fertilizers. Periodically, it is necessary to do soil analyzes in greenhouses. Joint cultivation in one greenhouse of such opposite in their requirements: crops such as cucumber and tomato is impossible.
Collecting cucumbers in greenhouses should be carried out systematically, when their consumer maturity begins. It is impossible to be late with the harvest. Overgrown cucumbers are practically inedible, in addition, they delay the growth of new cucumbers as well. from this the harvest is sharply reduced. As the fruits appear, the collection is carried out every 2 days, and with mass fruiting - every other day. At the same time, one should try not to damage the lashes and leaves, remove diseased, ugly, hooked fruits, as they deplete the plants, reduce their productivity. At the same time, it is necessary to discard diseased plants, as well as remove the aging lower leaves, without leaving hemp. This improves air convection, increases illumination, and prevents the development of diseases.
The most famous, popular, best varieties of pink tomatoes
- "Bull's Heart" is undoubtedly the most famous variety, one of varieties with the largest fruits. This salad tomato is incredibly tasty and nutritious. The fruits sometimes reach gigantic sizes and enormous weight. Some of them can weigh up to six hundred grams, but these are usually two or three fruits on a bush, the rest weigh 100-150 grams. Tomatoes ripen in 120-135 days, tall (up to 180 cm). In central Russia, it is grown in greenhouses, in the southern regions - in open ridges.
- De Barao Pink is one of the best rosé varieties suitable for canning. It grows in film greenhouses and bears fruit excellently from August to October, only the first frost becomes the end of fruiting. The variety is tall, up to two meters, the fruits are strong, even, weighing 60-70 grams, unusually tasty.
- "Abakan pink" is a mid-season variety, bred in Altai, with very large and tasty fruits, reaching a weight of 400-500 grams (usually 200-300 g), the bush reaches one and a half meters in height, the plant requires tying. It is grown both in the greenhouse and in open beds. A salad variety not suitable for preservation.
- Tsunami is a medium early variety, very juicy and tasty, suitable for fresh consumption and in salads. The fruits ripen 110-115 days after sowing and weigh about three hundred grams.
- "Pink honey" is a very good choice for growing in a summer cottage. Low, growing no more than a meter in height, it is suitable for greenhouses and open beds. The first fruits can weigh about a kilogram (!), The next - 300-400 grams. Very resistant to diseases and low temperatures, this variety with unusually tasty and juicy fruits, popular and widespread among gardeners.
- "Arktika" is a very undersized early variety, the bushes rarely grow more than half a meter. High yielding and unpretentious, this variety is very common and is suitable for greenhouses and garden beds.
- "Pink Flamingo" is a great variety, suitable for conservation, which is a rather rare quality among such tomatoes. Strong, sweet fruits grow up to 150-250 grams, they are very even and beautiful, kept fresh for up to two and a half months. A fairly early variety that begins to bear fruit after 90 days, suitable for growing in open beds.
- "Gigant Novikova" - the unusually delicate taste of the fruits of this variety of pink tomatoes quickly gained popularity. Large, juicy fruits, growing up to 700 grams, have a very delicate taste and soft texture.
- "Sugar Bison" is a tall variety (up to two meters) with juicy, very tasty fruits resembling a heart in shape and growing up to 300 grams.
- "Miracle of the Earth" is an excellent variety, not high (up to 1 meter), suitable for growing in ridges. The fruits are large (up to 500 grams), which requires a special, strong bush garter. Begins to bear fruit in 90-95 days.
- "Pink Heart" is an excellent variety, bred by selection of the "Bull Heart" variety and has much better performance in terms of yield, susceptibility to diseases and adaptability to natural conditions than its predecessor. Feels great on open beds.
This is not a complete list of the best varieties of pink tomatoes that have proven themselves well when cultivated and grown in the cool climates of central Russia.
Features of growing and caring for pink tomatoes
Since, unlike red tomato varieties, pink tomatoes ripen more juicy, sweet and fortified, they need more abundant watering and frequent feeding and fertilizing. The soil of the plant should always be moist, drying out threatens with crushing of the fruits, loss of yield and death of the plant. Tomatoes need to be fed with mineral complexes or special fertilizers for tomatoes, first when planting seedlings in a greenhouse or in open ground, then when flowers appear, an ovary and during the ripening period of fruits.To form a good ovary on plants, it is recommended to lightly spray flowering tomatoes, literally "dusting" with water, avoiding a strong stream of water to avoid pollen churning.
Do not forget about such necessary procedures for all types of tomatoes, such as the formation of a bush, pinching, pruning, tying. Also, plants need frequent loosening, weeding and protection from pests and diseases. The latter must be treated very carefully, tomatoes are plants that are very susceptible to garden diseases.
With the right choice of seeds and proper care and attention the best varieties of pink tomatoes will satisfy the most sophisticated tastes of tomato lovers with their taste and yield. See you, friends!
Greenhouses for protected ground
When preparing seedlings, the strictest preventive and quarantine measures are observed. Seedling greenhouses are treated with pesticides (fumigants or formalin), the soils are steamed for seeds, equipment, machines, and containers are disinfected. During the period of growing seedlings, the entrance to the seedling department from the side of the vegetable greenhouses is closed, leaving the entrance only from the street through a temporarily constructed vestibule. Before entering the greenhouse, place a container for disinfecting shoes. The workers of the seedling department receive special footwear and dressing gowns. Entry into this department is strictly prohibited.
Seedlings crops for the first and second revolutions of film greenhouses and greenhouses is advisable grow in seedling winter greenhouses or in heated spring film greenhouses of early start-up dates. Seedlings for film shelters and summer planting dates in spring greenhouses can be successfully prepared in greenhouses and unheated spring greenhouses.
Technology growing seedlings for spring structures in comparison with the preparation of seedlings for winter greenhouses has the following features:
- exclusion of electric lighting and placement of seedlings
- 7-10 days hardening by lowering the temperature and ventilating the seedlings before planting them from heated structures into unheated greenhouses, hotbeds, film shelters
- reduction in the duration of the seedling period by about 20-30%.
For growing seedlings, only seeds with high sowing qualities (first class) are used, which have been checked in advance and have undergone pre-sowing treatment, including mandatory disinfection.
Our articles on "Growing seedlings" »»»»
Protected ground, growing early vegetables
No matter how many warm days a year nature gives us, even in the southern regions, you always want to have fresh vegetables in the spring as early as possible, in the fall - to extend this period as long as possible. Spring is coming. Already in February, the duration of daylight hours increases markedly, the sun shines brighter, its intensity is quite enough to ensure the normal growth of plants of most vegetable crops. But other factors are also needed, first of all - heat. In order to create the necessary temperature regime, there are various devices (hotbeds, greenhouses, etc.) that allow you to grow vitamin products in the early stages, since it is during this period that they are especially valuable for the human body (spring vitamin deficiency).
In some northern cities, the so-called. "window" crops of vegetables. Craftsmen have learned to grow cucumbers and tomatoes all year round on window sills and insulated balconies (even special varieties and hybrids have appeared), not to mention green high-vitamin crops. However, the possibilities of this technology are limited to small areas - how many plants can you place on the windowsill? Therefore, we will not consider the details and secrets of this technology, but refer the curious to the special literature. In our case, this method can only be used to obtain seedlings or germination of potatoes for early culture. Another direction is the use of special devices, united by the general name "protected ground".
The first category includes a variety of small-sized devices for temporary protection of plants from the effects of low temperatures in autumn or early spring. These can be various tunnels, hoods with a frame made of wood or metal, covered with a polymer film. This can be sowing in furrows between two ridges, which are then covered with glass or a film stretched over a special quadrangular frame. Such structures are also used to extend the growing season (fruiting) of some vegetable crops (tomatoes, cabbage, green crops, etc., sometimes for 20-30 days) in the autumn.
In the early spring period, they are used to obtain early shoots of vegetables, growing early seedlings for subsequent planting in open ground. In these cases, you can get the harvest 7-25 days earlier than usual. Moreover, the yield of such crops is significantly increased.
There is a huge variety of devices invented by craftsmen, the purpose of which is to protect plants from late spring and early autumn frosts:
Individual caps. They are usually used to protect plants from weak (up to - 5.6 ° C) and short-term frosts. The designs are varied, but they are mainly made of metal or wood, covered with a bell-shaped or cylindrical polymer film. The larger the volume of air enclosed under the hoods, the slower it cools down during night frosts.
Frames of variable height are made of wire with a diameter of 6-8 mm. The ends of the wire arms are tied to wooden pegs driven into the soil to a depth of 30 cm.The height of the arc should be at least 40-50 cm.They are installed at a distance of 80-90 cm.If a tall crop is grown (tomatoes, cucumbers, etc.) ), then, as the plant grows, the wire arches move up the wooden pegs, increasing the height of the structure.
Having installed the frame and warmed up the soil well, sowing (planting) a vegetable crop is carried out. This design is used when growing early production of row crops (watermelons, melons, seedlings of tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant, etc.).
Sheltered ridges (in-depth and on ridges). This is the cheapest method that does not require large expenditures of scarce materials when growing early products. Dig a trench 20-30 cm wide and 12-15 cm deep and of arbitrary length. After sowing or planting seedlings, it is covered with film or sheets of glass. The direction of the trench is from west to east.
The same can be done above the soil surface, for which a "two-humped" ridge is arranged in the fall. Moreover, the "hump" on the north side should be 4-5 cm higher. In the spring, the comb is prepared, and seedlings are sown or planted in the depression between the "humps", and then it is covered with sheets of glass or polymer film.
Film shelters. The material for them is a polymer film with a width of 120-150 cm, and the support is made of arcs made of wire or rods d = 6-7 mm. Portable wooden or metal frames can be used instead. The length of the tunnels, as a rule, corresponds to the length of the row of seedlings or seedlings. They are used for almost any row crops.
In the book "Whether in the garden or in the garden" the following diagrams and pictures are described in detail and drawn:
Greenhouses and insulated ridges, a typical greenhouse, an insulated ridge, lean-to greenhouses, a device for making pots, film shelters of various designs, dimensional shelter with a plug-in wire frame, protective caps for individual plants, types of greenhouses, hangar greenhouse, film greenhouse from frames, arched greenhouse under the film, an arched greenhouse made of wooden beams, a single-pitched dung-earthen greenhouse, a wall greenhouse, a cross-section of a wall greenhouse, general views of a film greenhouse, a collapsible-portable film shelter, a greenhouse with a screen, a gable greenhouse, greenhouses with subsurface heating.
Also in the book on this topic tables are attached:
Types of substrates for hydroponic greenhouses. Table C-65
Characteristics of seeds and seedlings of vegetable crops. Table C-66
Soil temperature during the period from sowing to germination in greenhouse tunnels. Table C-67
Optimal conditions for growing seedlings of vegetable crops. Table C-69
Crop rotation in greenhouses. Table C-70
Characteristics of the main sources of electric light. Table C-71
Pre-irrigation soil moisture in the main phases of development of vegetable crops. Table C-72
Composition of soil mixes for greenhouses. Table C-73
Characteristics of film materials for growing vegetables. Table C-74
And most importantly, the book contains many useful tips on this topic in the author's section "Knots for Memory"
Presowing seed treatment
The most effective heat treatment of seeds is carried out in two stages. First, the seeds of cucumber, tomato (non-resistant to TMV - tobacco mosaic virus - varieties) are heated in a thermostat for three days at a temperature of about 50 ° C, and then one day at 76 ... 78 ° C (with constant stirring) such a temperature regime kills viruses without reducing the seed germination energy. Seeds that have already undergone heat treatment should not be warmed up, as this reduces their germination and germination energy. Seed farms are obliged to sell seeds only after heat treatment, especially cucumber seeds. The seeds of tomato hybrids with genetic resistance to TMV are not heated.
For the selection of more complete seeds, the method of separating them by density in a 5% solution of sodium chloride is widely used. However, this technique cannot be applied to seeds that have recently undergone heat treatment - they will all float up, since they have low moisture content (3-5%). In this case, insufficiently filled and deformed seeds are selected manually.
Before sowing, the seeds are treated with pesticides to destroy the spores of fungi and bacteria on their surface. For this, two to three weeks before sowing, the seeds are treated with 80% TMTD at the rate of 4 g of powder per 1 kg of cucumber seeds and 8 g per 1 kg of tomato seeds. The use of other dressing agents is also possible. To destroy a viral infection on the surface of seeds, immediately before sowing, they are treated with 1% potassium permanganate solution for 15-20 minutes, followed by washing with water. Seeds can be disinfected with a 20% hydrochloric acid solution for 30 minutes, followed by thorough rinsing with water.
The widespread method of treating seeds with physiologically active substances and microelements, which leads to stimulation of the metabolism in seeds and accelerated growth. So, before sowing, cucumber seeds are soaked in a solution of micronutrient fertilizers for 12 hours, in 1 liter of water they dissolve: boric acid, copper sulfate, zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate - 100 mg of ammonium molybdate - 20 mg. After soaking, the seeds are slightly dried to a free-flowing state.
This technique can increase the yield of a cucumber by 6-10%. Good results are also obtained from soaking the seeds in a 0.005% sodium humate solution for 24 hours.
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Video: How to grow seedlings for yourself in a heated bed
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A heating cable is used for ground heating (ground heating kit).
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Seedling growing methods
Cultivation methods are divided into potted and potless:
- the potting method is used at home and involves planting plants in individual containers without a bottom, for example, such as plastic or paper cups, ordinary or film pots. In this case, the period for growing seedlings is from 30 to 40 days, the presence of plants in such conditions for more than this period significantly reduces the yield. If you are not entirely sure of the quality of the selected seeds, you can apply a dive, for this, sow the seeds in small boxes, and after the appearance of 2 leaves, dive the seedlings. However, in order not to injure the plants with a pick, it is best to grow them initially in a separate container.
- The potless method is mainly used for growing seedlings in specially equipped greenhouses and greenhouses. A film is laid on the bottom of the bed, then the prepared soil is poured with a layer of 11-15 cm, depressions are made, which are spilled with a solution of potassium permanganate before sowing the seeds, after planting they are buried with dry soil and again covered with a film. To prevent the seedlings from pulling out, when sprouts appear, it is necessary to lower the air temperature to 8 degrees and remove the film.
When the planting season comes to a permanent place, the grown plants are carefully transplanted along with a clod of earth near the root.
In order to ensure the successful cultivation of seedlings, it is necessary to observe the optimal regimes of temperature, illumination, nutrition and humidity. The lack of illumination is compensated by the use of special or conventional fluorescent lamps, with the help of which the sprouts are "illuminated" for 16 hours. The air temperature during planting, it is desirable to maintain within 18-25 degrees, after the appearance of plants, depending on the culture, reduce to 10-16. For the normal development of seedlings, the minimum required planting area for each plant is observed: tomatoes 6 * 6 cm, zucchini, pumpkin and squash 10 * 10, cabbage 7 * 7. In the absence of a household humidifier, room humidity is maintained by placing a bucket of water near the heating battery.