If in the southern regions of Russia in the summer there is a bountiful harvest of orchards everywhere, then in the middle lane, not to mention the northern part of the country, you can rarely find well-bearing trees. This is partly due to certain difficulties in caring for them. But only partly.
Sweet cherry varieties Iput
The most important thing in growing a garden tree is to choose a seedling that matches the growth and fruiting rates of the climate and soil in which it will take root. With the development of genetics, the look at a purely southern plant, which is a sweet cherry, has disappeared into the past without a trace. As a result of the work of the All-Russian Research Institute in Bryansk, about a dozen winter-hardy cherry crops were born. Among them is the Iput variety.
Having applied competent care of the seedling to the genetics of it, the gardener will receive a tenacious and regularly bearing tree. Before you start planting, you need to master the necessary minimum knowledge of caring for Iput cherries. Then neither the freezing of the soil, nor the icy wind are terrible for the tree.
Cherry variety Iput was bred specifically for central Russia.
When fully ripe, the Iput cherry fruits are almost black in color
It is necessary to immediately convey to the attention of the amateur gardener that the tops of the branches are not afraid of thirty-degree frosts. But for them winter "windows" are terrible, when some warming gives the kidneys an impetus to move. After "closing the window" and the subsequent frost above twenty degrees, the buds naturally freeze or die altogether, after which there is no hope for a harvest. Therefore, in the northern suburbs, Sergiev Posad, Dmitrov, Iput must be planted with caution. In these lands, it is threatened with freezing of the tips of branches and buds up to (20% of the potential yield). Colds often lead to interruptions in fruiting.
Note to gardeners. All crop varieties are divided into two types:
Gini - early table varieties with sweet, tender, juicy fruit pulp, not intended for long-term storage and long-distance transportation
Bigarro - varieties of late and medium fruiting periods, intended for a sufficiently long shelf life, with good transport properties
Iput refers to the type of gini. This factor is a priority for amateur gardeners in choosing a fruit and berry tree.
Description of the tree, characteristics of the fruit
The culture is medium-sized (2.5-3m). Sometimes it grows up to 4–5 m. The crown, when pruned, forms a sparse pyramid or bowl (depending on the presence and location of skeletal branches). An adult tree has a spreading crown - up to 5 m. The foliage density is average. It begins to ripen from the end, and sometimes from the middle of June. In common people, sweet cherry, like its closest relative, is called a berry. But in fact, the fruit of a sweet cherry is a drupe. It has large parameters - more than 2 cm in diameter and weighs from 6 to 9 g. In shape, it resembles a heart of deep red color. At the peak of ripening, the cherry is maroon to black. The pulp is red, but the juice is almost colorless. In terms of consumption and processing, the fruits are universal.
Iput has elongated serrated leaves. They are smooth, dark green in color, bent inward. The branches grow long, thick and hairless, gray-brown in color. The kidneys are ovoid. The flowers of the tree are medium-sized with round white petals, the stamens and pistil are long, located at the same level, the cuttings are short.
The tree has a low percentage of self-pollination
The tree is partially self-pollinated. It is also called self-infertile. The yield is stable, average (25–30 kg). Iput impresses with the fact that it does not have a break in fruiting, as, for example, it happens with apple trees. And its yield is 2-3 times higher than cherry. With proper care, the tree will give birth for the first time in 4–5 years. Sometimes the yield reaches 50 kg.
It is noteworthy that Iput is very convenient for harvesting. This is facilitated by the fact that the stalks with cherries grow on the branches from the same point at once, 4 pieces at a time. They separate well, which greatly facilitates the work of the gardener.
The virtues of culture
- Early fertility
- Frost resistance
- Immunity to fungal diseases
- Stability in fruiting
- Sweetness and juiciness of fruit with good ripening
- Versatility in the use and processing of crops
- Wood's intolerance to excess moisture.
- In the rainy season, the fruits crack from an excess of water.
- The bone is difficult to separate from the pulp
- Unable to full self-fertilization
- With insufficient ripening, the fruits are bitter, do not have sweetness and juiciness.
When choosing a site for the Iput cherry variety, you need to take into account some of the features of its "character".
- Loves the sun
- Does not tolerate excess moisture
- Gravitates towards slightly acidic soils
- It cannot do without the society of pollinating trees.
Based on the foregoing, the place for the seedling must be chosen from the leeward south side of the house. Special requirements are imposed on the soil. As already mentioned, Iput does not tolerate excess moisture. At the same time, its roots dry out, the annual growth of the shoots weakened (they grow only 1 cm instead of 1 m). Groundwater flow must be at least 1.5m. If this condition is not met, then the idea of planting cherries may fail. Sometimes the owner cannot understand why his tree is dying. And the answer is simple - the place was chosen incorrectly. If the quality of the soil can be changed with the help of turf, mineralization, loosening and fertilization, then nothing can be done with groundwater.
For the tree, you need to make a small artificial mound (about 50 cm) so that the water does not flood the roots. It will be useful to have drainage grooves that will save the tree during floods or heavy rains.
Iput, like most plants, tends to slightly acidic soils. If you live in the suburbs, then you will most likely have to plant cherries in the sod-podzolic land, which prevails in this region. Therefore, at intervals of 3-4 years, it is necessary to normalize the acidity of the soil due to liming.
If the soil is light (sandy and sandy loam), then you need to take 300-400 grams of lime and evenly scatter it with a tree over an area of about 1 square meter. m. Then the earth needs to be dug to a depth of 20 cm. If the soil is heavy (clayey, loamy), then the rate of lime per square meter is 600–800 gr. Adding lime will help better assimilation of nutrients during feeding.
In the vicinity of Moscow, the soils are light. In order to be convinced of this, it is enough to dig the earth with a shovel. No shovel at hand - look around. Willow, white willow, common juniper, common pine, sandy immortelle, creeping thyme, stonecrop, young roofing, which grow in abundance in the Moscow region, prefer light soils.
The Iput variety, which is partly self-pollinating (only 5%), is classified as self-fertile and requires planting other varieties of sweet cherry next to it for fertilization of flowers. The optimal variety for this is Fatezh, which has an average pollination period. The planting material is planted at least 3 m apart from each other. The cherry, which blooms with the cherry, will bring great benefits for pollination.
With proper care, good planting space and regular feeding, the tree should be expected to expand both in height and width. On this occasion, pollinating trees are planted at a distance of 7 m.
To fertilize trees, you need to plant at least two cherries next to each other with different pollination periods. A mid-flowering tree should grow next to an early flowering tree. And next to the latter - late flowering. Then cross-pollination will occur.
Preparing the soil for planting
The correct planting of the tree is the key to its further development. It often happens that one-year-old seedlings grafted onto a 2-3 year old stock give the first harvest the next year. On light, air-permeable with neutral acidity soils of the Moscow Region, Iput cherries will feel good.
Soil preparation for autumn planting:
- We dig a hole with a diameter of 70 cm and a depth of 60 cm
We mix rotten (!) Manure in the amount of 3 buckets with wood ash (300-500 g) or potassium sulfate (60 g), as well as phosphate rock or superphosphate (60 g)
- The mixture is poured into the planting pit and left until spring
For spring planting, the soil must be prepared 15 days before planting the seedling:
- We dig a hole and mix all the extracted soil with organic matter
- The above potash and phosphate fertilizers are used in the same amount
- Fertilizers in the amount of 2/3 must be poured to the bottom and dug up with the ground
In spring planting, the remaining 1/3 of the fertilizer is used at the final stage.
Planting planting material
- Dig a planting hole
- Spread the roots at the bottom of the pit
- Fill the root system with the previously prepared soil in half with organic fertilizers (see above) so that voids do not form at the location of the root system that harm the growth of roots.
- Pour out a bucket of water
- Fill the hole completely and trample it down, forming a mound
- When planting in spring, the remaining third of the mineral fertilizers are mixed with the soil from which the mound is formed.
- drive a wooden stake next to the seedling and tie the seedling to it with a rope in the form of an eight
- A watering ring is cut around the mound, where you need to pour another bucket of water immediately after planting
To protect the soil from local acidification in podzolic soil, which is the land of the Moscow region, along with fertilizers add 300-400 grams of dolomite flour or carbonic lime.
Visual instructions for planting a two-year-old cherry seedling Iput
Some features of seedlings
The choice of healthy planting material is the key to the health of the entire tree. It should be intact, zoned, preferably biennial. The height of the trunk is at least 50 cm. If the roots have dried out during transportation, then they should be trimmed and placed in water for 8 hours. In a two-year-old already branched seedling, at an early stage of planting, you need to prune the branches, while forming the skeleton of a tree. If time is lost, then pruning should be postponed until next spring. The annual sweet cherry has no branches.
By the following signs, you will know that the seedling is of high quality:
- 1.Presence of 3-4 branches more than 35 cm
- 2.The bark is free of blisters, spots, cracks, wrinkles
- 3.The root system is developed, in the cut, the root is beige
- 4.The diameter of the stem is not less than 1.6 cm
Buy a seedling in a pot of soil. If the roots of the seedling turn out to be open, immediately upon purchase, wrap them with wet rags and cellophane on top. Planting a seedling should not be left for later. This should be done immediately, at least on the same day.
In no case should the root collar of the seedling be buried in the ground. It should be 5 centimeters above the ground level. In this position, the tree should be held with one hand when planting, and the other should be buried. As a result, the root neck after trampling the landing site will remain in the correct position. In this case, the sweet cherry will be protected from flooding by precipitation.
The seedling can be grown from the seed itself, as well as grafted onto a two-year-old cherry. But the best specimens are considered to be the rootstocks LTS-52 and VTs-13 bred in nurseries, obtained by vegetative reproduction.
In nurseries, seedlings grow in earthen pots
Some experimental gardeners cut cherry trees in the form of a bowl or bush. But the priority is the tiered form. This is due to the natural data of the sweet cherry. Branches grow in tiers on the trunk. The gardener's task is to form a conical sparse crown by removing excess shoots.
- Form skeletal branches, subordinating them to the trunk, avoiding sharp forks and making sure that the central conductor is 20 cm higher than the branches
- Before the buds swell, in early spring, remove the annual branches growing upward and inward
- During the period of development of the tree, until it begins to bear fruit, shorten promising shoots by 20% of their length in spring or pinch in summer
- Every autumn, carry out sanitary pruning, remove dry, diseased branches, cleaning and lubricating with a special putty.
With a cup-shaped crown of cherries, 4–5 branches are laid and the tree is cut like an apple tree. The tree formed by the bush has a short trunk, on which more than 10 branches grow densely and evenly. If the tree branches well, then there are all the prerequisites to form tiers of 5-6 skeletal branches. The first tier consists of three branches. The first two are adjacent, and the third is located 15–20 cm higher. The second tier is 70 cm from the first and contains 2 branches. The third tier, the last one, consists of a single branch located at a distance of 30 cm from the second tier. One year after the last branch is hatched, so that the tree does not grow too tall, at the age of 4 years, the central guide is pruned.
The location of the shoots relative to the trunk is 45-50 degrees. This slope is optimal for skeletal branches. It is important to observe this parameter, since very fragile cherry wood, when breaking off branches, is capable of splitting to the base of the trunk. This could result in the death of the tree.
While Iput is young, the shoots grow vigorously. Those of them that are directed upward and into the crown must be removed, since they do not bring practical benefit, but only thicken the crown, reduce the penetration of sunlight and interfere with the development of potentially fruitful branches.
The situation has changed over the years. Shoots become shortened, but the number of flower buds increases. But, despite this, the yield decreases due to a decrease in the life span of the bouquet branches. The crown thickens, the yield drops. The tree needs anti-aging pruning. All branches are shortened.
Unbelievable, but it is a fact. If, as a result of excessive cold weather, the tree died, then this is not the end. The tree needs to be cut. On the stump, adventive buds are formed - the future branches of the new crown.
In the harsh northern conditions, sweet cherry is able to grow and bear fruit quite successfully in the form of a bush. For this, the central conductor is cut above the fifth bud, allowing the lower branches to develop. Saving on upward growth, trees direct their strength to fruiting.
Crown formation and pruning - photo gallery
Iput needs regular feeding. The fertilizers applied during planting will last for 3 years. Stone fruit trees grow well if they are fed with nitrogen fertilizers. In the second year (and subsequent) of the tree's life, urea is added. Around it in early spring, you need to scatter 100–120 grams of fertilizer and dig in to a depth of 10–12 cm. It will be even better if you pour a urea solution on the trunk circle three times from May to early June in a proportion of 30 grams per bucket of water.
Remember, overfeeding is dangerous. Excess fertilizer causes increased vegetation of the shoots. By winter, they do not have time to stiffen and die.
In the fourth year of life, the roots of the sweet cherry will grow and go beyond the trunk circle. In order not to injure them, an annular groove is formed around the tree, into which in early spring urea is introduced in an amount of 150-200 gr. Then the furrow is irrigated with water. Potassium sulfate (100-120 g) and superphosphate (300-400 g) in granular form are poured into the same furrow in autumn or late summer.
In the fifth year, to increase yields, an already completely mature tree is fertilized in spring with ammophos (30 grams per bucket of water).In autumn, the soil is dug up together with organic fertilizers (grass, straw, peat, humus, compost).
Having entered the fruiting period, to improve yields, the tree receives urea (200) annually in early spring, as well as the minerals of superphosphate (40 g) and potassium salt (30 g) in the fall. These fertilizers are poured dry into a circular hole.
Liming of the soil is carried out every five years.
It will be useful to remind that nitrogen and organic fertilizers cannot be combined with lime minerals.
Liming is at the same time a reclamation process to neutralize the acidity of the soil and fertilize it with magnesium and calcium, which are lacking in many agricultural crops.
Before proceeding with liming the soil, the sample should be taken to a laboratory, where an agrochemical analysis will be carried out and the degree of acidity, as well as the amount of lime mineral it needs, will be determined.
Sod-podzolic bowels, which include the vastness of the Moscow region, mostly need liming. With a professional approach to the issue, you can significantly increase soil fertility. Wherein:
- Improves soil water resistance
- The soil structure is being improved
- Improves the development of plants, due to the saturation of the earth with microelements
- Beneficial microorganisms are activated
- Fertilizers bring more benefits
Before liming the soil, you need to do a laboratory analysis of the soil
Sweet cherry, although it is afraid of flooding and the proximity of groundwater, still belongs to moisture-loving trees. Therefore, it needs regular irrigation. Sufficient watering is considered, which is able to moisten the roots located at a depth of 30–40 cm. The first time this is done in May, when the tree is growing intensively. The second time is in June, when the fruits start to pour. The third time you need to perform moisture-discharge watering in the fall, before the onset of cold weather. In dry summers, irrigation of the root zone is necessary often, regardless of flowering and fruiting. Water is poured into the annular groove.
In winter, moisture is frozen out of the cherry crown. But if the tree is provided with moisture-discharge irrigation, then frost is not terrible for it. Water, rising from the roots, saves the branches from drying out.
It should be remembered about the drainage of the soil, the water should not stagnate. At the same time, the roots must always have enough moisture. Drip irrigation is encouraged. If it is absent, then the loosening of the earthen crust, as well as mulching with hay, sawdust, etc., will save the trunk circle from drying out.
The soil in the near-trunk zone is formed in the form of a mound and is mulched with sawdust
Preparation for wintering
The better a gardener takes care of his cherries growing in colder regions, the more confident his tree will remain intact. Still, it is endowed with a southern genotype, which is very different from the nature of northern plants. In northerners, wood has less moisture, natural antifreeze - resin - accumulates in the cells. Iput is deprived of such protection.
But she has a caring owner who will strengthen her immunity with potassium and sodium in advance, tie the trunk to a support, protect it with a fence from the wind, whiten the stem with clay, and overlay spruce branches.
Another great way to ensure the cherries prosper in the northern regions is to transform them into a stale shape, so that the trees grow low and the branches spread along the ground. Shale trees are not afraid of the blows of fate. The murderous north wind does not bother them due to their short stature. And with snow, like fur, you can cover the whole tree. In such a "fur coat" he is not cold in the most severe frosts.
Enemies of the cherry - table
Iput, although resistant to mushrooms, has some enemies. These include coccomycosis and moniliosis. Often, aphids are bothered by cherries.
|Moniliosis (fruit rot)|
|Black cherry aphid|
Trees affected by coccomycosis, moniliosis and black aphids: photo gallery
The birds are the main destroyers of the sweet cherry crop. They have long fallen in love with sweet juicy fruits, which, moreover, easily fit into a bird's goiter. To save the harvest, distressed gardeners use all sorts of deterrents. They tie a scarecrow to the branches, stretch out fishing line, reflective tapes, hang up foil, bags, CDs, etc. But this does not help for long. With their bird brains, the smaller brothers quickly grasp the essence of what is happening and resume their predatory raids.
Therefore, without wasting time (and harvest) in vain, it is worth taking advantage of the experience of others. Buy a small mesh net and cover the tree with it while the fruit ripens. This will give one hundred percent protection.
Useful properties of cherries
In addition to its wonderful taste, Iput cherries have a very important nutritional composition. These are not those artificial, so-called beneficial substances that are in the form of tablets in a plastic box. It has already been proven that only natural vitamins and microelements nourish a person.
Fruit consumed in summer strengthens human immunity for the entire winter. The fruits of plants, especially those grown by their own hands, give people a great life-giving force, while simultaneously cleansing the biofield.
Therefore, eat cherries for health "live". Stock up on vitamins A, C, E, PP, B1, B2, pectins, as well as iron, potassium, iodine, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium. And if you do not eat all 30 kg at once from one tree, prepare it for future use. From cherries, wonderful compote, jam, marinade, juice, and alcoholic drinks are obtained. It can be frozen and dried.
When transporting crops over long distances, Iput cherries are poured in a layer of 17 cm, 6–8 kg each, into lattice boxes. If the transportation is to be carried out to nearby stores, then in addition to boxes, you can use trays, sieves, baskets. The harvest does not last long, no more than two days at a temperature of 0 degrees and a humidity of 85–90%.
Most Benefits of Fresh Fruit
The cherry variety Iput, bred by breeding, can grow and bear fruit with success in the central part of Russia, and with certain efforts in the north of the Moscow region.
What is this species
Also I.V. Michurin tried to create a cherry variety capable of withstanding severe winters, and to spread this fruit tree in the central and northwestern regions of the country. But only in the early 90s of the last century, scientists from the Bryansk region M.V. Kanshina and A.I. Astakhov were able to create varieties that are not inferior to the southern ones either in taste or in the size of berries. One of these breeding novelties was named Iput. In 1993, this variety was entered in the State Register of the Russian Federation and recommended for cultivation in all regions up to the latitude of St. Petersburg.
Iput cherry fruits are dense, almost black, ripen in mid-June.
The cherry tree of the Iput variety is not too tall, 4–5 m. The crown is pyramidal, spreading. The kidneys are large. Leaves are elongated-ovoid, with a sharp tip.
It is characterized by winter hardiness not only of wood, but also of flower buds, withstands prolonged frosts down to -30 ° C. Quite steadfastly tolerates sudden changes in temperature from frost to thaw and vice versa.
At the same time, flower buds do not freeze out during a sharp cold snap from freezing temperatures to -25 ° C.
It blooms in early May. 3-4 ovaries are laid in the inflorescence. Begins to bear fruit in 4-5 years from the date of vaccination. Self-infertile. For fruit setting, sweet cherry is required - a pollinator of the same early flowering period. It can also be pollinated by cherry blossoms at the same time as the Iput cherry.
The variety is genetically resistant to fungal infections. It is extremely rarely affected by diseases and pests, in unfavorable years or with poor care.
The fruits ripen early, in mid-June. They are large, cordate, 20–22 mm in diameter, weighing 5–9 g. The color is dark, burgundy red. The more ripe, the more intense the color of the fruit. Berries with dense pulp, juicy, sweet. The stone is 5% of the fruit weight. It is separated with some difficulty. Tasting taste assessment 4.6 points. The purpose of the fruit is universal.
The yield is stable and high. From one mature tree, with good care, you can collect from 25 to 50 kg of cherries.
Pick up time and place
Cherries with an open root system are best planted in early spring. Saplings planted in autumn and poorly rooted trees can freeze out in winter. Plants bought in the fall must be dug in for the winter. In autumn, cherry trees are planted only in the south.
To get good harvests of cherries, it is necessary to follow, first of all, certain rules when choosing a place for planting. It should be noted that cherry trees do not tolerate wind and drafts.
It is best to place them in an area protected from northern winds, on the southern, southeastern or southwestern slopes, near the walls of buildings. Cherry will not grow in lowlands, in waterlogged places.
The groundwater level should not exceed 1.5 meters. Otherwise, trees are planted on artificial hills. The same technique is used if the soils on the site are heavy, clayey, acidic. Sweet cherry grows well on light loamy, sandy loam, well-drained soils.
Sweet cherry grows well in a place protected from northern winds
The site intended for planting must be cleaned of debris and dug up on a half-bayonet with a shovel, choosing the roots of weeds and larvae of dangerous insects: beetle, wireworm. Mark the location of the landing pits.
The distance between trees should be, taking into account the height of future plants, at least 5 meters. Pollinating trees should be planted next to the Iput cherry varieties.
It is necessary to prepare planting places for seedlings in the fall.
They dig holes 70 x 70 x 60 cm. The top fertile soil layer is thrown to one side, the lower layers to the other. Subsequently, this soil is simply scattered over the surface and leveled. It is not added to the landing pit.
The turf removed during digging is placed on the bottom, with the grass down, add fallen leaves, mowed and chopped grass, 1-2 buckets of compost or humus.
10 glasses of deciduous tree ash are poured to enrich the soil with microelements and deoxidize. Mineral fertilizers do not need to be added to the pit. Sprinkle everything on top with removed fertile soil and watered abundantly.
The prepared planting pit is mulched with rotted sawdust or a thick layer of any mulch.
If the soil is clayey and heavy, form a hill. To do this, pegs are driven into the ground at a distance of 5 m from each other in the places of the supposed planting of trees. Around the peg, sod, hay, mowed and chopped grass, turned upside down by the roots, are folded.
Fall asleep with humus mixed with turf soil and ash of deciduous trees (1-2 buckets of humus, 1-2 buckets of turf soil mixed with 10 glasses of ash). The resulting hill is watered abundantly with water and mulched on top with a thick layer of rotted sawdust or other mulch.
To get good harvests of cherries, you need to choose the right seedling and plant it according to all the rules.
Selection of seedlings
You need to purchase seedlings only in large garden centers or nurseries that grow plants themselves for sale. Otherwise, there is a risk of over-grading or the acquisition of low-quality seedlings.
Two-year-olds take root best of all. When buying them, you need to carefully examine them. Pay attention to the condition:
- Vaccination sites. If it is not there, the seedling is not grafted and does not correspond to the variety declared on the label.
- Sapling thickness. The stem should be no thinner than 1–1.5 cm in diameter.
- Kidney. They should be green and lively. You can't break out the kidneys. The cherry does not have dormant spare buds.
- Cutting branches or a trunk if you bought a one-year-old seedling. The color of the cut wood should be green.
- Roots. They should be numerous, branched and lively, light on the cut, not dried out.
- Cambia. The bark scratch should be green.
Seedlings with a closed root system can be planted throughout the season
Cherry trees are planted in early spring, as soon as the soil thaws. Seedlings with an open root system, before planting, must be soaked for a day in water with the addition of root formers Heteroauxin or Kornevin.
Plants purchased in the fall are taken out of the pit, examined, checked for preservation, and soaked for two hours in the same way. The roots are straightened, the darkened, damaged ones are cut out. Shorten too long.
- A stake is driven into the center of the hole to tie a tree.
- They make a depression for the roots so that the tips do not bend up, but lie freely spread out to the sides.
- Set the seedling so that the root collar is at the level of the soil or 2-3 cm higher.
- Fall asleep with the excavated soil, periodically shaking the plant so that the roots do not end up in voids.
- A hole is formed around the planted tree.
- Sprinkle abundantly in small portions to absorb the water. Pour 1-2 buckets of water under the plant.
- Tie a seedling to a peg.
- The trunk circle is mulched with a thick layer of any mulch.
- Cropped if sellers did not do this when buying. If there are branches, they are shortened by 1/3 of the length. If there is no branching yet, the seedling is shortened to 60 cm.
A layer of any mulch under the tree retains moisture, protects against weeds and provides additional nutrition to the seedling
Caring for cherry trees consists in systematic pruning and crown formation, watering, feeding, caring for the near-trunk circle, preparing for winter and spring work.
Pruning and shaping the crown of Iput cherries
Cherry pruning can only be done in spring, starting with planting a seedling. The stem of the tree is cut at a height of 50-60 cm, achieving tillering. In the second year, the overgrown branches are normalized, leaving 5–6 strongest.
One is left to grow vertically, like the center conductor, shortened by a third. The rest are bent at a right angle, forming the first tier of skeletal branches. To do this, use stretch marks or ordinary clothespins.
The length of the side shoots is also shortened by 1/3 of the length for greater branching.
In the third year, the skeletal branches of the second tier are formed in the same way, cutting out weak and growing crowns in the center. Leave 3-5 branches, unbend them to the sides, leaving none of them vertical. It should make a bowl. It is necessary to ensure that the branches of the second tier of the crown are not longer than the shoots of the first tier. To do this, they are shortened.
Further annual pruning consists in shortening and thinning the growing shoots so that dormant buds on the branches awaken and fruiting does not pass to the ends of the branches, but is evenly distributed along the entire length of the branches.
The crowns growing inward, rubbing adjacent branches against each other, are cut out at the base. It is especially important to remove the outgrowths that form below the graft. If you leave such a shoot, all the food will go into it, and the tree may die.
Watering cherry trees
Iput cherries are watered only in dry years, especially during the filling and ripening of fruits. But you need to make sure that there is not too much moisture. It is enough to keep the soil moderately moist under a thick layer of mulch, otherwise the berries will start to crack. Drip irrigation is most useful in this case. After harvesting, the tree does not need watering.
Drip irrigation will provide the seedling with constant moisture in the root zone
Top dressing of cherries of the Iput variety
Until the trees bear fruit, they are limited to the introduction of deciduous tree ash (200 g for 1 tree) into the soil in early spring, after the snow melts.
From the moment of flowering and fruiting, annually in the spring, 1 bucket of humus or compost, 1 glass of bone meal, 1 glass of ash are brought under the tree. At the beginning of summer, it is useful to mulch the soil under the cherries with fermented grass. Ash and bone meal, 200 g of each component, are also added under the autumn digging of the trunk circles.
Care of the near-stem circle of sweet cherries of the Iput variety
It is very important that the tree trunk circle is free of weeds. Its radius should be equal to the perimeter of the crown. It is necessary to dig the soil under the cherry very carefully, not deeper than 10-15 cm, so as not to damage the roots, but it is better to just loosen it with a flat cutter.
You can combine mulch and ground cover plants, which are planted at a distance of 40-50 cm from the trunk. It is useful to plant low-growing marigolds, nasturtium, calendula. They are not removed in the fall.
In the spring, old mulch and plant residues are raked away from the trunk so that the roots thaw and warm up faster. The earth is loosened or dug up to raise harmful insects to the surface. After that, the mulch is renewed and new plants are planted. The old one is used for composting.
Winter preparation and spring work
In autumn and spring, the trunks of cherry trees and the bases of skeletal branches are whitewashed with lime with the addition of copper sulfate. But in young cherries up to 6 years old, the bark is still tender and whitewashing is contraindicated for them.
The trunks can be protected by spraying with 1% Bordeaux liquid and then wrapping them and the skeletal branches with strips of white cloth from sugar bags. For these purposes, strips of thick agro-suf are also suitable.
This trunk cover allows air to pass through and does not retain moisture. But it perfectly protects against frost damage.
In the spring, immediately after the snow melts, this wrapper is removed from the trunks, and the trees are again sprayed with 3% Bordeaux liquid.
Nasturtium in the near-stem circle of a cherry will decorate the garden and protect the tree from harmful insects
The most dangerous diseases of the Iput cherry variety
Cherry of the Iput variety is genetically resistant to the most dangerous diseases of stone fruit crops. These are moniliosis, coccomycosis, clasterosporia and some others.
But for prevention, every spring it is necessary to treat trees with 3% Bordeaux liquid, and whitewash the trunks and skeletal branches of trees in spring and autumn with a composition of slaked lime with the addition of copper sulfate.
It is best to purchase a ready-made mixture for this purpose in the garden center.
Cherry pests of the Iput variety
Adult weevils feed on flowers and unripe cherries. Aphids at the ends of the shoots suck sap from the plant, preventing further growth of the branch. A cherry tubework or weevil lays eggs on a cherry pit, and the larva gnaws at its contents. Cherry fly larvae can spoil up to 70% of the cherry harvest.
Harvesting cherry varieties Iput
Cherry begins fruiting from the fifth year from the moment of planting. Under favorable conditions, it can begin to bloom and set fruits earlier. This variety is early maturing. The fruits ripen in mid-June. Fruit ripening is amicable. With good care, the yield of trees can reach 50 kg per adult tree.
You can pick berries without a stalk, they do not get wet, but still, if necessary, store or transport fruits, they are plucked with a stalk. You can store fresh berries in the refrigerator for about five days. Sweet cherries of the Iput variety can be eaten fresh, frozen, preserved for the winter. Delicious jam, confiture, pie fillings are made from it.
But compote is especially good from this cherry.
Sweet and juicy cherries of the Iput variety - a reward for gardeners for their work
Reviews of gardeners about the Iput cherry variety
More and more gardeners in the central and more northern regions of our country dare to plant and grow cherry trees. Iput variety shows excellent results, pleases with taste, abundant harvest.
The resistance of this cherry to diseases affecting cherries and other stone fruits has not been ignored either. Cherry Iput does not require special attention, the rules for caring for it are simple and clear.
And every year she pleases the happy owners with an abundant harvest of tasty and healthy fruits.
Features of planting a tree
For planting, choose a bright dry place with light soil.
The Fatezh variety is self-fertile. For this reason, pollinators should be planted next to cherries: Iput, Revna, Crimean, Raditsa, Ovstuzhenka or Chermashnaya... Two or three plants will be enough.
Sweet cherries are planted in the spring before bud swelling or in mid-autumn. Despite the winter hardiness of the variety, for a tree you need to select a site protected from northern winds. You should also take into account the following requirements for choosing a landing site:
- The place should be well lit by the sun. It can be a hill or flat area.
- The tree should not be placed in a low area where moisture stagnates. Groundwater should not approach the surface closer than 1.5 m.
- Sweet cherries take root well on loamy, sandy and sandy loamy soils with low acidity (pH 6.5–7). In heavy clay and peaty soils, the tree will not be able to develop and bear fruit.
- On a site with a close occurrence of groundwater, an artificial hill with a height of 80-100 cm should be made.
It is advisable to purchase seedlings in special nurseries.
- Suitable for planting are one-year or two-year plants with three to four lateral branches and a guide, as well as developed roots. They can be either grafted or self-rooted.
- The height of two-year seedlings should reach 1 m, and one-year old - 70 cm.
Video: tips for choosing seedlings
So that the roots do not dry out, they are moistened with water after purchase, then wrapped in a damp cloth and film.
Important! If the seedlings were purchased in advance, they should be dug in. The plant is placed obliquely into a hole 40–50 cm deep and covered with soil.
Video: tips for digging seedlings
The step-by-step process of planting cherries occurs in the following sequence:
- Before planting, it is recommended to improve the structure of the soil and increase the level of its fertility. To do this, in the spring for 3-4 weeks or in the fall (in the case of spring planting) the soil is dug up and 15 kg of compost, 150 g of simple superphosphate and 120 g of potassium chloride per 1 m 2 are added. 400 g of lime is added to the soil with high acidity.
- Since cherries are demanding on the fertility of the soil, nutrients are also added to the pit, which is prepared 2 weeks before planting.
- Trees are planted at a distance of 3-4 m. For cherries, dig a hole 60 cm deep and 80-100 cm wide.
- The upper soil up to 30 cm thick is mixed with 15 kg of compost or humus, 60 g of potassium sulfate, 200 g of superphosphate and 500 g of wood ash.
- A wooden peg is placed at a distance of 15 cm from the center of the pit.
- Then, at the bottom, a mound is formed from the nutrient composition, which should occupy about 2/3 of the volume of the planting hole. A seedling is placed on it and sprinkled with earth.
- The root collar is placed 5–6 cm above the surface level. The soil around the tree is compacted.
- Then they retreat 30–40 cm from the trunk and dig an annular groove into which 20 liters of water are poured.
- After that, the near-stem zone is mulched with humus or sawdust.
- The seedling is tied to a peg. It is better to do this in the form of an eight, so that the twine does not overtighten the trunk. The stake should not exceed the height of the cherry, otherwise it should be sawed to the required level.
Important! When planting cherries, it is not recommended to use lime and nitrogen substances, since they negatively affect the survival of the plant and can provoke a burn of the root system.
Video: rules for planting cherries
How a southerner became a northerner
It all started with the Lupine Institute in the Bryansk region. There, in the fruit-growing department, a unique geneticist Mayina Vladimirovna Kanshina has been working for more than forty years. She devoted all her talent and all her life to breeding cold-resistant varieties of sweet cherries.
Variety Iput is a "daughter" of selection forms numbered 3-36 and 8-14. After crossing them, many years of nurturing and strict selection of hybrid seedlings followed. In 1993, a new sweet cherry variety was included in the register of breeding achievements and recommended for cultivation in the Central and Central Black Earth Region of Russia. Mayina Vladimirovna gave her name to her brainchild from the name of the Iput River flowing through the Bryansk region.
Cherry variety Miracle is an interesting plant that combines the advantages of cherry and cherry crops. This recently developed variety is referred to as the so-called dukes. The famous Russian biologist I.V. Michurin.
LI Taranenko was involved in the hybridization of the Miracle Cherry. The variety was bred in Ukraine, in the city of Artemovsk. The parents of the form were Griot's cherry and Valery Chkalov's cherry.
Drupes are exclusively of a presentation. They are very large, weighing up to 9 grams, rounded in shape and somewhat flattened. The dense, but thin, dark red skin shines brightly. The pulp is also red, juicy and tender. The bone is semi-detached.
Dessert quality fruits, they combine sweet cherry and characteristic pleasant cherry aroma. The tasters rated the taste of the Miracle with a maximum score of 5 points on a 5-point scale.
The crop ripens early, at the end of the first summer month. The fruits can be harvested from June 25th. The yield is high, average 7-10 kilograms, and with good care - up to 15 kilograms per tree.
The structure of the Miracle rather resembles a sweet cherry: It has a thick trunk and powerful branches. The shape of the crown is similar to that of a cherry, and the plant branches, following the example of the mother cherry. The branches initially branch off at sharp angles, and without leaving the crown tends to a pyramidal one.
High sprouting ability, strong, straight shoots covered with glossy brown bark. The leaves are dark green, leathery and large. The flowers are also large, although they resemble cherry blossoms in shape. Flowering begins as soon as the weather is warm. This duke is self-infertile.
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Pollinators and care
The pollinator can be Melitopol joy, different varieties of cherries (Toy, Favorite) or sweet cherries (Tenderness, Yaroslavna).
Usually cherry trees suffer from fungal diseases - monilliosis and coccomycosis. The miracle is devoid of this drawback, its stability is much higher. The winter hardiness of the form is sufficient for cultivation in the southern regions. This makes it easier to care for the garden and expands the geography of the variety.
Another advantage of the hybrid is the rapid entry into fruiting, because the generative buds of the Miracle lays even on an annual growth. Therefore, the first signal fruits can be tasted literally two years after planting, and the harvest appears in the fourth year.
The plant must be shaped. Young shoots are pulled down with weights or tied to pegs driven into the ground in order to "accustom" them to a horizontal position.
Saplings resemble cherry ones: they are large, with thicker shoots than those of cherries. You can buy them in nurseries via the Internet, as well as in garden shops, fairs and bazaars, but in this case, it is better to give preference to a trusted seller.
Pits are dug at 5 meter intervals to provide the tall tree with ample living space. It should be remembered that Miracle prefers sunny areas without northerly winds, and fertile soil. The planting material is not buried, the root collar is left above the soil surface.
In the early years, the plant uses the nutrients stored in the hole. Therefore, at this time, you should attend to sufficient watering, inspection and prevention from diseases and pests, and formative pruning. Subsequently, trees continue to be pruned every spring, removing 1/3 of each well-developed shoot.
The variety loves abundant watering, young plants are especially sensitive to soil moisture. Fruiting specimens should not be left without water before flowering and during intensive growth and fruit loading. However, the Miracle is classified as a relatively drought-resistant hybrids. Summer periods without rain, with dry air, which are not uncommon in the south, the variety tolerates normally.
From harmful insects, cherry flies can settle on trees, so treatment with an insecticide before flowering is very desirable.
Cherry Miracle has collected the best reviews from gardeners. Its fruits are very beautiful and large, and the plants themselves are hardy and fast-growing. If your climate suits the variety, be sure to pay attention to it.
Description of varieties of columnar cherries with photos
Unusual varieties of columnar cherries appeared on the plots relatively recently, and many gardeners liked them for their compact shape. They are easy to care for, prune branches, and harvest. Before purchasing, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the climate, soil, study photos, reviews and advice on agricultural technology.
Description of the variety of columnar cherry
The columnar shape of trees is a new word in breeding. Gardeners are increasingly purchasing them, wanting to save space on their summer cottage, while the quality and volume of the crop are preserved. Sweet cherries of this type were bred after pears and apple trees. They surprise with a large number of names and features.
Columnar varieties of sweet cherries have characteristic differences:
- The height of an adult tree does not exceed 2-3 meters. Due to the special shape of the crown, the average diameter is 1–1.5 meters. This saves space for planting, reduces the distance to the fence.
- The flowering and ripening period does not differ from the standard varieties. The first flower stalks appear in May, and the fruits can be harvested in mid to late June (depending on the climatic zone and region).
- Productivity largely depends on the variety of columnar cherries, its ability to self-pollinate. Experienced gardeners recommend planting different species on the site in order to increase the number of ovaries.
- The transportability of the varieties allows you to transport the crop for sale without loss of taste and presentation. Saplings are also distinguished by their endurance when moving to the planting site.
- The drought resistance of trees allows them to be grown in warm regions, Moscow region, with the same efficiency. Trees tolerate increased dryness, require increased watering during the formation of the ovary and fruiting.
- Frost resistance allows agronomists to recommend some varieties of sweet cherries for cold Siberia: the root system does not die at a temperature of -25-30 ° C.
All types of new varieties of columnar cherries have a small amount of green foliage and a neat crown. It receives enough sunlight, is well ventilated on hot days, so the fruits are distinguished by aroma, pleasant taste, juiciness.
Columnar cherry varieties for regions
For a long time, sweet cherry was considered a tree that is demanding on the climate, care, watering. It was rarely grown in Siberian latitudes, fearing that the fruits would not have time to gain juiciness and sweetness. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, many varieties with high frost resistance have appeared. With proper care, they give guaranteed results.
Varieties of selective columnar sweet cherries have many advantages:
- spectacular crown shape
- ease of harvesting
- simplicity in preparation for wintering
- the opportunity to get the first harvest 2-3 years after planting.
Depending on the variety, the fruits of the columnar cherry can be black, red or yellow. Low trees resemble slender columns in shape, which gives the site a well-groomed appearance. Disadvantages are considered fragility and the need to periodically cut off the lateral processes in order to give the crown a neat look.
The best and adapted varieties of columnar cherries, depending on climatic conditions:
- For the Moscow and Leningrad regions, experts recommend undemanding cherries for watering Sam, Black, Revna. They endure late frosts in May, continuing flowering and ovary formation. Large berries weighing 10–12 g allow you to get a bountiful harvest in a short time.
- The best varieties of columnar cherries for the Urals are Black, Revna. They are frost-resistant, withstand winter with minimal preparation. The trees reach a height of no more than 2-3 meters, they are not afraid of strong winds, they resist many fungal infections.
- The climate of central Russia allows gardeners to choose not only winter-hardy varieties. They can choose from Sylvia, Queen Mary, Yellow, Tyutchevka.
- The Malyutka variety is ideal for Siberia. A miniature tree in growth does not exceed 2 m, so the trunk does not break in the wind. Small berries can be used for preparations, eaten fresh. It is easy to collect up to 13-15 kg from one sweet cherry.
In colder areas, gardeners recommend planting trees in special containers. Low-growing varieties grow for a long time in 15–20 liter buckets. After the foliage has fallen off, they can be moved to a closed room, an insulated cellar with a temperature of up to + 10 ° C.
Existing varieties of columnar cherries
During selection, the most unpretentious varieties became the basis, the fruits of which differ in taste and large size. Self-fertile varieties that do not require the participation of the owner in pollination are better suited for growing on a personal garden plot. All characteristics must be checked with the seller, purchase seedlings in specialized stores.
The most popular varieties for areas of the middle lane:
- Sam. Almost the only variety with a high yield, which is grown in industrial gardens for the sale of fruits.
Large dark red cherries resemble the Valery Chkalov variety in taste. Ripens quickly in mid-June, therefore it is recommended for planting in the Urals. The average life span does not exceed 15-17 years.
- Sabrina. Self-fertile variety with a beautiful thin crown, up to 2.5 m high.
The crop fully ripens in early July. The fruits are red-golden in color and contain a lot of sugar. Despite the ability to tolerate frost, it grows better in the warm climate of Krasnodar, Crimea.
- Yellow. Trees of this variety are recommended for industrial cultivation: strong berries are suitable for transportation, suitable for canning for the winter. Unpretentious in care, undemanding to watering, but prefers not swampy soil.
- Black. Small fruits resemble cherries and have a delicate taste. The main advantage is easy adaptation to the difficult conditions of Siberia. It produces a bountiful harvest with few sunny days. Recommended for beginner amateur gardeners.
- Jealous. In diameter, the fruits do not exceed 0.8 cm, but are valued for their juiciness and benefits. It tolerates drought and heat well.
- Silvia. The classic type of columnar sweet cherry for dachas in the Moscow region with excellent immunity, high yield, frost resistance. Gives the first harvest in the second year after grafting, pollinated by Sylvia, Sam.
Not all of the listed species can be planted in cold areas. The root system is shallow, so it can freeze. No less destructive is the overflow of soil, the occurrence of groundwater, the close presence of sewer pits.
Varieties up to 2–2.5 m in height are suitable for decoration of a plot. Planted in a row every 1–1.2 m, they form a spectacular wall, allow you to divide the territory with rational use of the land.
Agricultural technicians recommend the following varieties:
- Little Sylvia. The trunk grows no higher than 2 m, has a compact crown made of tight-fitting branches. It is appreciated by gardeners for its high content of fruit sugars, juiciness, and the ability to fully ripen by 3-4 weeks of June.
- Sabrina. Fleshy fruits contain many vitamins, trace elements, ready to be harvested in the second half of June. Cherry grows up to 2.2–2.5 m and does not tolerate severe frosts and spring frosts. Among the positive aspects is the ability to resist many bacterial diseases.
- Queen Mary. Frost-resistant type of fruit trees. Suitable for planting in portable containers, yields 13-14 kg of juicy burgundy berries with proper care.
- Baby. An ornamental shrub up to 0.7 m in diameter does not require pruning and forming branches. When fruiting, the medium-sized berries completely cover the trunk, resembling an ear of corn.
- Iput. Differs in fruits of medium size. They have excellent taste and are suitable for winter preparations. Transferring carriage in crates without losing appearance. Refers to mid-season options for home cultivation in the regions of the Black Earth Region.
- Tyutchevka. The species is self-fertile. Up to 25 kg of small cherries with a pleasant aftertaste can be harvested from one tree. On average, it retains the ability to bear fruit for up to 20-22 years.
Cherry varieties with the photo below are recommended for growing in warm climates. But more and more new products appear on the market, surprising with their ability to endure frost and ice hail. But even proven varieties give a large yield only with proper planting in a hole or on a hill, with regular fertilization and watering.
Reviews of the columnar cherry
Victoria Petrovna, Ryazan
Columnar trees have been grown on their site for more than 5 years. I acquired several varieties of cherries: Iput, Sabrina, Malyutka. I like that the collection takes up a minimum of space, creates an original fence near the gazebo. Productivity, of course, should not be compared to common species. But caring for them is so simple that a novice owner can do it.
Several years ago, at an exhibition in VDNKh, they bought columnar cherries of the varieties Iput, Sylvia, Yellow. I really like the appearance of the crown, the ability to harvest from a stepladder without assistance. They easily endure Moscow winters, they are not demanding in care. I can recommend as vitamins for grandchildren and decoration of your favorite summer cottage.
Growing columnar cherries will appeal to gardeners who love bold experiments on the site. It does not give a large harvest for sale, it is recommended for a small farm. But compact trees become a decoration of the garden, will bring pleasure from simple care.