Pear Conference - old, popular variety

Pear Conference - old, popular variety

Conference pear is an old variety common in many countries with warm climates. Popular in Europe, America, China. Where and how you can grow this pear - it is useful to find out about this for the gardener.

Description of the variety and its full characteristics

The characteristics of the conference pear tree depend on the rootstock to which it is grafted. If it is a forest pear, then the tree will grow medium or tall. In this case, its height usually reaches five to eight meters. During the season, the shoots give an increase of 60 centimeters. Such a tree will give its first harvest only in the fifth or sixth year from the moment of planting a one-two-year-old seedling. The annual harvest is good - 60–70 kg per tree. A tree grafted onto a quince will grow small - 2.5-4 meters in height. The crown in any case will be wide-pyramidal, dense, strongly leafy. The early maturity in the second case is higher - 3-4 years, but the yield will be more modest - 30-40 kg per tree or 210 kg / ha. The winter hardiness of the variety is average, and on quince rootstocks it is low, the trees freeze out even in frosts of -15–20 ° C. Some gardeners note the increase in winter hardiness of the conference pear with age. The variety also does not differ in drought resistance and requires frequent watering. The immunity to diseases and pests is average, practically not affected by scab, there is a high probability of thermal burns of the leaves in hot weather.

The fruits are harvested in late September – mid-October. They keep well in refrigerated chambers until January. The pears are quite large and one-dimensional - the average weight is 143 grams. The shape of the fruit is elongated and pear-shaped, they hold well on the tree, do not crumble. The skin is rather tough, greenish-yellow, covered with dense rusty spots. But the pinkish-creamy pulp has tenderness, juiciness, buttery, melts in the mouth and has a pleasant, sweet taste. Tasters in Ukraine gave the taste of the Conference 4.8-4.9 points. There are few seeds inside the fruit, and seedless pears are often found. Table fruits have good transportability.

There are few or no seeds inside the fruit of a pear Conference of seeds

Where pears are grown Conference, including in Russia

Pear Conference for the first time as a variety was allocated in England in 1884 and ten years later became quite widespread in Western Europe. As it is easy to calculate, this variety has been cultivated for over 130 years. The Conference appeared in the State Register of the Russian Federation quite recently - in 2014, it was zoned for the North Caucasus region. The originator was the Institute of Horticulture of the Ukrainian Agrarian Academy of Sciences.

Originator - an individual or legal entity who created, bred, or identified a plant variety or animal breed and (or) ensures its preservation, but is not a patent holder.

Currently, the variety is already widespread not only in Western, but also in Eastern Europe, as well as in America and China. There is information about cultivation in Poland, Ukraine, Moldova. In the Russian Federation, this pear is planted in the southern regions with a warm and humid climate. Some gardeners report a successful experience of growing pears at the Conference in the Moscow region and Belarus, but there is no information about mass farm plantings in these northern regions. Yes, this is unlikely due to the low winter hardiness of the variety.

According to some sources, most of the export of pears from China to various countries is occupied by the Conference variety. Because of this, this pear is sometimes called the China Conference. But such an unofficial name rather speaks only about the origin of certain batches of fruits, and not about varietal characteristics.

How pears grow Conference

Conference pears grow both in private plots and in industrial gardens. In the latter case, seedlings on dwarf quince stocks are more often chosen. The life span of such trees is only 35–45 years, but due to the convenience of care and harvesting, the method is economically justified. Dwarf pears are often grown on trellises using a palmette formation. In household plots, pears of this variety are often planted on the rootstocks of wild pears - in this case, the trees, as already mentioned above, grow quite tall. The lifespan of such plants, according to some sources, reaches three hundred years. It is difficult to assert this with certainty, but in any case, the Conference has been living on a pear stock for a long time.

The Conference has been living on a pear stock for a long time

The Conference pear has a high self-fertility, moreover, it is itself a good pollinator. But, as often happens, the yields will be higher and more stable in the presence of additional pollinators, for example, pears of varieties Williams, Bere, Lyubimitsa Klappa, Chizhovskaya.

Video: Pear Review Conference

Planting pear varieties Conference

Like any pear, the Conference loves well-lit, sun-heated, ventilated places. At the same time, these areas should not be blown by cold northerly winds and be located in zones of flooding by soil waters. Loose, well-drained soils with a slightly acidic reaction are preferred. Alkaline soils are unacceptable, since the pear is sick and does not develop well on them. The best value of acidity lies in the range of pH 5.0-6.5, it is possible to plant on soils with a pH of 4.2-4.4.

The distance from buildings, fences or neighboring trees should not be less than 5.5-6 meters for a tall pear. Low-growing ones are planted in rows with an interval of 3-4 meters and a distance between rows of 5-6 meters. When grown on trellises, the distance between rows is reduced to 3–3.5 meters, and the spacing between trees in a row is 2.5 meters.

Since the Conference is planted in warm regions, it can be done both in spring and autumn. In any case, there should be no sap flow at the time of planting. In the case of autumn planting, it is advisable to cover the plants with spunbond or other insulating materials for the first winter. It is better to buy seedlings at the age of 1-2 years; older trees can only be planted with a closed root system. By the way, in this case, the landing date can be any - from April to October.

If you plan to grow on trellises, then you should take care of their installation in advance. Metal or reinforced concrete pillars three meters above ground level are installed in a row. The interval between adjacent pillars is kept equal to five meters. Several rows of steel wire are pulled between the posts, but this is more convenient to do after planting the seedlings. Further planting instructions are the same for both trellis and single versions of pear cultivation. It consists of the following steps:

  1. The preparation of the planting pit should be carried out at least one month before the expected planting date. In the case of spring planting, the pit is prepared in the fall. They do it like this:
    1. They dig a hole with a depth of 70-80 centimeters and the same diameter. On sandy soils, the volume of the pit is made within 1-1.5 m3.
    2. If the soil is heavy, a ten-centimeter drainage layer is laid on the bottom. It can be crushed stone, expanded clay, broken brick, etc. If the soil is sandy, then a layer of clay of the same thickness is laid on the bottom of the pit.
    3. After that, a nutrient mixture is prepared in an amount sufficient to fill the pit to the top. Such a mixture consists of equal parts of peat, humus, black soil and sand with the addition of 300-400 grams of superphosphate and three to four liters of wood ash.
    4. The pit is filled with the resulting mixture, watered and left to shrink the soil. If the pit is being prepared in the fall for spring planting, then for the winter it should be covered with roofing material, foil, slate, etc.

      The planting pit is filled with nutrient mixture to the top.

  2. Immediately before planting, the roots of the seedlings are soaked in water for several hours. At the same time, you can add any growth stimulant, for example, Epin, Kornevin, Heteroauxin, etc.
  3. In the hole, a hole is made large enough to accommodate the root system of the seedling. A small mound is poured in the center of the hole, and at a distance of 10-15 centimeters from its top, a wooden stake 100-120 centimeters high from the ground level is hammered. In the case of growing on a trellis, a stake is not needed.
  4. The seedling is placed with its root collar on the top of the mound, the roots are straightened and covered with earth to the top. Do this evenly, in layers, compacting each well.

    When backfilling the roots with earth, it should be well compacted.

  5. When performing this stage, it is important to monitor the location of the root collar - as a result, it should be approximately at the level of the compacted soil.
  6. The seedling is tied to the stake with elastic material. If the option with the use of a trellis is chosen, several rows of steel wire are pulled at intervals of 30-50 centimeters, after which the seedlings are tied to these wires.
  7. A near-trunk circle is formed along the diameter of the planting pit and well watered. As a result, the soil should be abundantly moistened and adjoin to the roots of the seedling.

    After planting a seedling, it is watered abundantly with water.

  8. After a while, the surface of the trunk circle is loosened and mulched.
  9. The seedling is cut to a height of 60-80 centimeters, the branches are cut in half.

Features of growing and subtleties of care

To obtain regular and high yields of the Conference pear, it is necessary to provide proper and timely care.

Watering

Pear Conference needs regular and abundant watering. With a lack of moisture, the fruits become small and tasteless. If the lack of moisture becomes critical, the pear can throw off some of the fruits or even all. Typically five to twelve waterings are required per season. This amount depends on the frequency of precipitation, air temperature and humidity. To determine if a pear needs watering, they do it simply. A handful of earth is taken from the trunk circle and squeezed into a lump. The lump is thrown to the ground from a height of about one meter. If it has crumbled, the tree needs watering. Accordingly, if the lump remains intact, then the earth is sufficiently wet and watering is not needed. Single trees are usually watered individually in formed tree-trunk circles. In the case of row plantings, especially when growing on a trellis, it is advisable to equip a drip irrigation system. In this case, water consumption and the need for loosening are reduced. And also the intervals between waterings increase in the case of mulching the trunks. In the fall, before leaving for the winter, water-charging irrigation is carried out. This stage helps to increase the winter hardiness of the pear.

Drip irrigation is convenient for group planting of pears

Top dressing

Regular application of top dressing starting from 3-4 years after planting will provide high and annual yields of high-quality fruits. In the spring, 20-30 grams of ammonium nitrate, urea or nitroammophoska are annually brought in for digging. And also at this time, organic fertilizers are applied at the rate of 5-7 kilograms per 1 m2... It can be humus, compost, peat. They are brought in once every 3-4 years. During flowering, to increase the number of ovaries, the plant is sprayed with a solution of 0.2 g of boric acid in one liter of water.

At the beginning of summer, potash fertilizers (potassium monophosphate, potassium sulfate) are applied at the rate of 10-20 g / m2, first dissolving them in water for watering trees. And also during the period of growth and ripening of fruits, the pear is fed with liquid organic fertilizers. To do this, pre-insist two liters of mullein in ten liters of water for 5-10 days. Instead of a mullein, you can take one liter of bird droppings or 5-7 kilograms of fresh grass. The finished infusion is filtered and used for watering. Use one liter of such concentrate per 1 m2 near the trunk circle, pre-diluting it with water in a ratio of 1 to 10. During the season, you can do 2-3 such dressings.

In autumn, superphosphate is added under digging in the amount of 30-40 g / m2... In addition, trace elements are also needed. They are usually used as part of complex mineral fertilizers.

Trimming

Methods for pruning and shaping the crown of a pear The conference depends on the rootstock on which it is grafted and the chosen method of cultivation.

Tall Pear Formation Conference

If the Conference is grown on a forest pear rootstock, then give it a sparse-tiered crown shape... Such a formation is well known and is not difficult for an experienced gardener. It is carried out in early spring within 4-5 years from the moment of planting.

Sparse tiered shaping is used for tall trees

Formation of undersized pear Conference with conventional cultivation

When growing Conference pears on a quince rootstock, it is better to use a bowl-shaped formation. At the same time, good ventilation and illumination of the inner volume of the crown, as well as ease of care and harvesting, are achieved. This formation is usually achieved in 4-5 years. It should be remembered that it provokes a strong thickening of the crown, which is already characteristic of the pear Conference.

For a pear Conference on a quince rootstock, the formation of a crown like a bowl is suitable

Pear Shaping Palmette Trellis Conference

With such a formation, branches are left that are in the same plane. Usually 8 to 12 skeletal branches are laid. The lower ones have an angle of inclination in the range of 45-55 °, the upper ones - 60-80 °. All of them are attached to the trellis dragging, bending if necessary. During the formation period, the central conductor is cut annually so that it is 60-70 centimeters higher than the base of the upper branch. All unnecessary and competing branches are cut into a ring. The overgrowing branches are left at intervals of 15-25 centimeters. They are not folded back or tied up, allowing free growth.

Forming the crown of a pear like a palmette, they leave branches located in the same plane

Regulatory trim

The Conference is especially relevant for low-growing pears, but it is also possible for tall ones. It is carried out annually in early spring by cutting out the shoots growing inside the crown and thickening it.

Supportive pruning

It is usually carried out in the summer during the period of active growth of young shoots by shortening them (chasing) by 5-10 centimeters. This encourages the growth of additional overgrowing branches, on which the next year's harvest is laid. In addition, the maintenance of high yields can be ensured by pruning for replacement shoots according to the type of grape formation. This method requires more experience and time consuming.

Maintaining high yields of pears can be ensured by pruning for a vine-like substitution shoot

Sanitary pruning

This type of pruning is an important step in the prevention of various diseases. It is performed in late autumn after the sap flow has stopped by cutting dry, diseased, broken branches. Since pathogens can be found in such branches, they are burned after removal. Sanitary pruning, if necessary, is repeated in early spring, if frostbite or broken shoots have appeared during the winter.

Diseases and pests - the main types and solutions to the problem

The Conference pear does not have a high immunity to disease, with the exception of scab. Therefore, when growing it, special attention should be paid to prevention and sanitation.

Table: types of preventive and sanitary work when growing pears

Table: Major diseases of the pear Conference

Photo gallery: the main diseases of pear

Probable pear pests

Basically, only preventive measures are effective against pear pests. This is due to the fact that when fruits affected by caterpillars or flowers eaten by the flower beetle are found, it is too late to fight.

Pear flower beetle

This small bug hibernates in the soil of the trunk circle, and with the onset of spring it rises to the surface, then along the trunk it gets to the crown of the pear. There it affects buds, flowers, ovaries, young shoots. By the end of May, it lays eggs in the soil, from which larvae appear - the so-called beetles. These insects feed on young plant roots. The preventive measures described above usually prevent the spread of the pest.

Pear beetle primarily affects pear flower buds

Pear moth

It flies in the spring, lays eggs in the soil, from which caterpillars crawl out. Then they rise to the crown and penetrate the pear fruits. A brownish hole with a drop of gum can be seen at the site of penetration. It is possible to resist the pest only by observing preventive measures.

When the caterpillars of the pear moth hit the fruits, it's too late to fight them.

Aphid

As already mentioned, aphids enter the crown with the help of ants. It affects the leaves from the underside, which subsequently curl up into a tube. Insecticide treatment is only effective until the leaves have curled up. If the leaves have already curled up, all that remains is to cut them off.

Ants love to feast on the sweet secretions of aphids.

Variety reviews

You should not try to grow the Conference in the middle lane. Miracles do not happen and sooner or later it will freeze out. But for the North Caucasus region, the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Territory and the Crimea, this variety is commercially attractive. Due to its excellent taste, keeping quality and transportability, as well as the possibility of compacted cultivation on trellises, the variety is interesting for farmers and gardeners.

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Hello! My name is Peter Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.

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Planting pit preparation

The size of the pit depends on the size of the root system and stock. In any case, the pit should be at least 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 m.Depending on the groundwater level, a tree can be planted at the soil level (with groundwater deeper than 1.5 m) or on a hill (with a high occurrence of groundwater). It should be borne in mind that the development of a tree provides for filling the hill along the width of the crown.

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To fill the hole, we prepare a soil mixture consisting of turf, peat and sand in a ratio of 3: 1: 2, fill it with organic and mineral fertilizers. On a medium wheelbarrow we put 0.5 liters of horn-hoofed meal (if there are no dogs on the site) or bone meal, 2-3 tbsp. l complex or simple mineral fertilizer, but with the addition of microelement dressing, 1 liter of gumi deoxidizer. It is good to add rotted manure (horse or cattle) to the mixture - a bucket per tree, but this is already in the upper layers of the pit.


Pear "Conference" - description of the variety. Photos and reviews

Pear "Conference" is a classic of world selection. It has been cultivated for over 130 years. The variety is of English origin and is well studied in all regions of Europe. It is a winter variety that produces large, juicy and sweet fruits. Moreover, pears are perfectly stored until January-February. For many of us, "Conference" is a taste of childhood. Non-greasy, dense, firm and at the same time soft pears with a wonderful aroma - what could be better than such a fruit in winter?

Pear "Conference": variety description

Variety "Conference" - a large and tall tree with a pyramidal crown, which over the years becomes wide-pyramidal. Recently - from the end of the twentieth century to the present day - it is grown mainly on quince stocks. Flowering at the "Conference" is medium early, and such pear varieties as "Bere Giffard", "Williams", "Bere Bosk", "Bere Gardi" can act as pollinators. However, this variety can also self-pollinate. On a quince rootstock it begins to bear fruit after 4 years, and on a forest pear rootstock - 5-6 years after planting and bears fruit abundantly and regularly. "Conference" has a relative resistance to scab, but, like many other garden dwellers, is unable to fight fungal diseases on its own. That is, the pear needs preventive treatments with antifungal drugs.

The fruits of the "Conference" are of medium size - from 130 to 150 grams, however, they can have up to 180-240 grams of weight on young trees. Elongated pears, elongated pear-shaped or bottle-shaped, hold firmly to the tree. The skin of the fruit is thin, but strong, light yellow, sometimes with an orangey blush on the side. On the surface of the pear there are many dots and rust-colored spots.

The pulp of the pear immediately after harvest in October is yellowish-pink, tough and sour. But after a short storage, the fruits acquire a yellow pulp, juiciness, softness and aroma. The taste of such fruits is sweet with a slight sourness, and the palatability is practically drawn to a solid "five".

The area where the conference pear grows, like the plant itself, does not require special care. This variety is quite resistant to the most common diseases, easily tolerates heat and is not picky about the soil. However, the tree requires a certain amount of space and protection from the northwest winds. If you lay a garden of "Conference" pears, then the productive period of such a garden is from 35 to 40 years. Conference pears ripen in late September and early October. In the cold summer, the fruits do not ripen and do not gain the flavor characteristic of the variety.

The advantages of the variety according to the reviews of summer residents are good yield and high taste of fruits, their good preservation. The disadvantages include insufficient winter hardiness, the difference in fruit weight, the dependence of the quality of the fruit pulp on weather conditions and not very presentable appearance.

After harvesting, as already mentioned, Conference pears are not very tasty. But if you put them on a warm windowsill, then in a few days they will acquire sweetness, juiciness and their own aroma. For longer storage, Conference pears are placed in a cold cellar or refrigerator. At the same time, within 3-5 months "Conference" does not lose its taste.

Pears contain many substances useful for the body - macronutrients and organic acids. Pears are especially useful for the intestines due to their high content of potassium salts. However, when eating pears, it is recommended to adhere to several rules: do not eat pears on an empty stomach, do not drink pears with water, do not eat pears with milk and meat, do not eat pears immediately after a heavy meal.


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