Winter and spring garlic: reproduction and diseases, planting schemes

Winter and spring garlic: reproduction and diseases, planting schemes

Garlic is the king of spices

Garlic - an irreplaceable spicy culture in every vegetable garden. And this is not accidental, because without it, practically no workpiece can be made; without garlic, many dishes will become bland and not so tasty; and the medicinal properties of garlic mean a lot, especially in our harsh climate.

Winter and spring - what to choose?

The fundamental difference between winter garlic and spring garlic is that winter garlic is planted in autumn, and spring garlic - in spring.

But there are other nuances as well. Winter garlic gives large heads with large chives, but it is worse stored, although there are many tricks to help preserve it. Spring garlic forms small heads that are perfectly stored until the next harvest. In addition, winter garlic is arrowed, i.e. forms air bulbs, which, along with cloves, this culture can be propagated, and spring does not have such a feature.

In other words, there is no ideal garlic, both winter and spring have both pros and cons, and which one to stop is up to the gardeners themselves, depending on the specific circumstances. If you want to get a bigger harvest, choose winter garlic, and if you cannot preserve it, choose spring garlic. Although it is probably more reasonable, perhaps, an intermediate option: to grow winter garlic for summer and autumn harvests, when a lot of garlic is required, and leave spring garlic for storage for winter and spring, with which there are much fewer problems during storage. Landing landing strife

As noted above, winter garlic can be propagated in two ways: with chives and air bulbs, and spring garlic - only with chives.

Reproduction by teeth - pros and cons

This is the traditional method used by most gardeners, which allows you to get a harvest of garlic in one year. This is a plus compared to bulb propagation. However, there are two disadvantages when planting with teeth.

1. Irrational use of planting material, which is especially critical for winter garlic, because there the teeth can be very large. It happens that there are only four cloves in a large onion, which means that you use a quarter of the grown crop for planting, which is still not very profitable.

To reduce the percentage of the harvest that goes then for planting, you should not take the largest cloves - they are much more profitable to use in autumn harvests, when you have to peel a lot of garlic.

2. Planting garlic infected with diseases (primarily bacteriosis). Such garlic does not take root well and does not overwinter well. As a result, the seedlings are thinned out in spring, and the leaves on the remaining plants begin to turn yellow early, which will automatically lead to a decrease in yield and significant spoilage during storage.

Keep in mind that by occupying a garden with planting stock of diseased garlic, you are making a serious mistake that threatens to spread the infection. In order to reduce the percentage of diseased garlic bulbs to a minimum, a number of rules should be followed:

  • carefully select planting material: you cannot take for planting teeth from the head, in which at least one yellowed lobule or clove with sores, or a glassy-transparent lobule is found;
  • do not plant garlic in a crop rotation after garlic or any onion crops;
  • before planting, it is necessary to pickle the chives first in a solution of sodium chloride (3 tablespoons per 5 liters of water for 1-2 minutes), then immediately in a solution of copper sulfate (1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water), and then plant this teeth without washing;
  • garlic must be harvested well ripe, but with intact integumentary scales;
  • when harvesting, do not pull out of the ground without undermining, do not cut, because if it is damaged, the heads rot;
  • dehydration of garlic after harvesting should be done as quickly and very carefully;
  • during storage, garlic must be sorted out, be sure to remove diseased heads.

Signs of bacteriosis in garlic and factors in the spread of the disease

Infection of the heads of garlic begins in the field, where the infection persists in the soil on plant residues that were not collected in previous years during harvesting.

Signs of disease when harvesting garlic under the covering scales are not visible, although sometimes some heads are slightly yellowish from the bottom. Bacteriosis reaches mass development during storage. Deep brown sores or streaks appear on the garlic cloves. The tissue of the affected clove acquires a pearlescent yellow color, the lobule becomes slightly transparent, as if frozen. Garlic gives off a characteristic putrid smell.

Only ripe, but undried garlic is mainly affected, especially with mechanical damage during harvesting, transportation, etc.

Storing heads in warm and humid conditions will increase disease progression and may lead to re-infection of adjacent heads.

What teeth to take for landing?

The cloves should be taken only from healthy bulbs, otherwise they may not sprout at all, and if they do sprout, they will give a crop infected with diseases, which will most likely die during storage.

Teeth should be taken only from large heads - a clove taken from a large head is potentially ready to form a large head again. In addition, only the outer teeth should be taken, because inner teeth will yield less yield.

Schemes for planting garlic with chives

We all know very well how to plant garlic - row by row and at a fixed distance from each other. More precisely, since the times of these, there was only one way of planting it - the usual single-tier planting, which is recommended in a variety of books on gardening. However, there are other recommendations. For example, the specialists of the Volgograd State Agricultural Academy recommend switching from the classic single-tiered to two-tiered planting.

Option one - a classic single-tier planting of garlic in rows.

With this planting, the garlic is planted at the same depth in 6-7cm rows. The distance between the rows and between the teeth in a row is 15 cm.

Option two - two-tier planting of garlic in rows.

With this planting, two cloves of garlic are planted in one nest: the first - to a depth of 13-14 cm, and the second - to a depth of 6-7 cm. The distance between the rows and between the teeth in a row is 15 cm.

Option three - two-tier staggered garlic planting

In this case, the garlic is planted in a checkerboard pattern, but at different depths and, in comparison with the previous version, in different nests. Odd rows of garlic are planted to a depth of 6 cm with a distance between the cloves in a row of 15 cm.The distance between the odd rows is also 15 cm.In addition, even rows are placed between the odd rows, in which the cloves are also planted, but already to a depth of 13 cm, so, so that in relation to the teeth of odd rows, they are staggered. The distance between the teeth in even rows is also 15 cm.

Both new methods (second and third) allow more rational use of the area and get almost twice the yield per unit area compared to planting in the traditional way. In addition, when planting in two tiers, it is more likely to save part of the crop during a harsh and little snow winter, when it comes to winter garlic. This technology of planting garlic is patented by the developers, so that enthusiastic gardeners can fully test it on one of the garlic ridges.

Experiments were carried out by specialists of the Volgograd State Agricultural Academy on the light chestnut soil of the Volgograd region. Before planting, the soil was dug to a depth of 20 cm and organic fertilizers were applied at the rate of 10 kg / m².

A special device has been developed to mechanize the planting of garlic with strict observance of all distances and depths of planting cloves. It is made of wood in the form of a square with a side of 1.05 m and with many pins.

By installing the required pins of different lengths and the corresponding displacement of the structure, the garlic can be planted in different patterns. Thanks to the device, it was not necessary to manually make a hole for planting each clove: one press of the structure on the soil - and a whole series of holes is ready, and you can already plant. You can do it easier and get by with a pair of ordinary rails: install pins 13 cm long on the first, and 6 cm on the second.

The germination rate of garlic according to all planting schemes in spring was almost 100%. In April, the seedlings were fed with Azofoska at the rate of 7 g / m² per one horizon. During the growing season, the garlic was given six irrigations in addition to natural precipitation, after each irrigation the soil was loosened. The largest yield (4.4 kg / m²) of an acceptable size of bulbs (40 g) with a relatively low consumption of planting material (0.54 kg / m²) was obtained when planting according to scheme 3. The increase in yield compared with control plantings was 62.7% ... When planting according to scheme 2, we got lower productivity - 3.7 kg of garlic per 1 m², ie. in comparison with the control beds, the yield increase was only 38.2%. This is because the plants in the same nest oppressed each other.

In conclusion, we can say that, in comparison with the usual single-tier planting, both two-tier schemes turned out to be effective, but gardeners should still choose a two-tier staggered planting as the most profitable from the point of view of obtaining the maximum yield per unit area.

Svetlana Shlyakhtina,
Yekaterinburg city


Best and worst predecessors

It is known that thanks to a successful crop rotation, you can get a high-quality crop.

Important! It is good to plant garlic in an area where the predecessors were crops such as oats, mustard, peas, cucumbers, zucchini, and strawberries from berries.

Garlic does not feel well in the area where root crops grew last season: potatoes, beets, carrots, etc.

Do not plant garlic after nightshade crops such as tomatoes, eggplants, bell peppers.


Garlic

fertile, medium fertility, neutral, sandy loam, loamy

direct sunlight, scattered sunlight

Garlicbelongs to the onion family and is one of the oldest vegetable crops. It is an annual cold-hardy and winter-hardy plant.

The beds are allocated for him in a sunny place, without stagnant water (it does not matter whether they are spring or rain), otherwise he will get wet.

The best predecessors are legumes, early cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini and pumpkin.

But after potatoes, you cannot plant garlic: it can become infected with fusarium, it can be damaged by nematodes.

Garlic has two forms: arrowhead and non-arrowhead. The shooter throws out an arrow - a flowering shoot with an inflorescence, which consists of airy bulbs and underdeveloped flowers. By the way, cultivated garlic has lost its ability to produce seeds, it reproduces only vegetatively.

Non-shooting garlic has no arrow - only leaves develop. If the bulbs are cut across, the differences in structure will become apparent. The first teeth are large, identical, clear-cut, arranged in a concentric circle, in the center - an arrow. The second has a lot of teeth, they are medium-sized, of different sizes and are arranged as if in a spiral, "overlap" each other.

Shooting garlic reproduces by bulbs and children (chives), non-shooting garlic - only by children.

True, the division of garlic into groups on the basis of arrowing is rather arbitrary. So, in the northern regions, shooting garlic sometimes stops shooting, and in the south, non-shooting garlic acquires the ability to throw arrows.

Depending on the planting period, garlic is divided into winter and spring. Winter is sometimes called southern, and spring - northern. Shooting varieties are more adapted to winter crops, non-shooting varieties to spring crops. In central Russia, winter shooters are most often grown.

CARE RECOMMENDATIONS

Needs regular weeding and loosening of the soil.

Most often, garlic is watered at the stage of active plant growth - in May-June. Watering is stopped 2-3 weeks before harvesting.

Affected by downy mildew, black mold, rust, onion fly and stem nematode.


Planting garlic seeds

In the first year, a single-tooth (onion) grows from the bulbs, but in the second year a normal garlic head appears. You can also eat one-tooth, but it is better to leave them, nevertheless, for further reproduction.

Seeds can be planted for winter or spring.

Sowing seeds for the winter

First, you should treat a piece of land by fertilizing it with phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. After that, make grooves five to six centimeters deep. Pour river sand at their bottom, place garlic seeds in it at a depth of three centimeters.

The distance between the seeds should not be more than 6 cm. Between the rows it is necessary to maintain 10 cm. After planting, the soil should be watered and the grooves should be covered with earth, covered with peat or wood slips on top to make a pillow a couple of centimeters high.

Planting garlic seeds in spring

A safer way for garlic is to plant in spring. Bulbs should spend the winter in a dry and dark place, where the temperature will not exceed 20 ° C heat. In February, the seeds will need to be moved to a cooler place, where the temperature will not exceed 4 ° C, so that vegetative processes are activated in them.

A week before planting, the seeds must be dried and ventilated, preferably sprayed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. When the earth warms up to + 7 ° C, you can start planting seedlings. In the prepared area, it is necessary to make furrows, in which the seeds should be placed at a depth of three to four centimeters. The distance between the seeds is about 4 cm, and between the rows about 15 cm. Further, the furrows must be covered with earth and mulched.


Features of growing garlic in the regions

Since garlic is a frost-resistant crop, it is grown in almost all regions. The methods and methods of cultivation are the same. The difference exists only in the specific calendar dates for planting and harvesting, depending on local climatic conditions. When you start growing garlic, you need to know that there is one important feature inherent in this culture. Over the years of cultivating garlic in a certain area, it adapts to its characteristics and, as it were, gets used to it, adapts to them.... If you subsequently take seed, for example, from the Moscow region and plant it in Ukraine, then the gardener may well be disappointed. The size of the heads, their quality and yield can be significantly lower than when grown in a familiar region. Therefore, when purchasing seed material in an online store, you need to be prepared for the fact that the expectations of its properties, declared by the seller, may not be justified. It is best to use local tried and tested varieties.


Every experienced gardener knows that it is possible to harvest a good harvest of vegetables, including the described product, only when the planting is done on time. Some novice gardeners quite often confuse these types, not knowing what this or that variety looks like. Therefore, they plant him at the wrong time.

The external difference between these plant species is the number and shape of the cloves.

  1. The winter species has large teeth, evenly spaced around the arrow-stem. In addition, they are smoother and have the same shape.
  2. The stump of winter crops is firm and rather thick. The presence of a flower arrow is another characteristic difference between winter crops. A thin and soft stump, as well as the absence of an arrow, is characteristic only of the spring species.

What are the differences between winter garlic and spring garlic?

Thanks to these main external differences, you can easily distinguish between types of garlic and know when and which variety to plant.

By the way, if you store the winter type at home all autumn and winter, then it will most likely dry out. But the summer variety is ideal for storage, retaining its taste until spring.


Winter and spring garlic

To begin with, I think it will be useful to remember what is the difference between winter and spring garlic. As is obvious, the first is planted in the fall - before winter, and the second - in early spring. In our area, spring garlic is practically not planted - more and more winter. But ideally it is worth growing both of them: winter garlic yields higher yields, but it is stored worse, while spring garlic has excellent keeping quality.

Outwardly, you can distinguish spring garlic from winter garlic by the size of the cloves (in spring they are smaller) and their location. In winter garlic, the chives are arranged in one row around the flower stem - arrows. If you cut a clove of such garlic across, in the middle you can clearly see the rudiment of the future stem. And in spring garlic, stemless, non-shooting varieties prevail. Its teeth are usually arranged spirally in several rows. Here, I found a diagram on which these differences are clearly visible.

Accordingly, the methods of reproduction will be slightly different. Winter garlic can be propagated with chives or air bulbs that form on the arrows (if the bulbs are not needed, the arrows are usually broken out without waiting for them to ripen and open). Spring garlic does not form bulbs, so it is propagated only with chives.


Watch the video: Planting GARLIC in SPRING after being kept in the Freezer