Features of agricultural technology and types of chicory

Features of agricultural technology and types of chicory

Chicory is a valuable medicinal and food plant

Chicory like medicinal plant was known to the ancient Egyptians, Romans, Greeks. The history of its application goes back over 4000 years. The mention of chicory can be found in the writings of Pliny the Elder, Galen. The great physician and philosopher of antiquity Avicenna dedicated his Treatise on Chicory to this plant.

In the East, several thousand years ago, they began to prepare a drink from roasted crushed roots of chicory, which in taste and aroma resembled coffee. This drink was recognized by Europeans only in the 17th century.


The drink made from chicory roots gained particular popularity during economic crises, such as the Great Depression (USA, 1930s), and the Coffee Crisis (East Germany, 1976-1979). Russian peasants have long used chicory leaves and roots for food (salads, botvinias, syrups), used them for medicinal purposes, but the first data on the use of chicory roots as a coffee substitute appeared in Russia only in 1800.

Chicory is a very popular culture in European countries. Of the most consumed vegetables, chicory is in second place in Belgium, in the Netherlands - in third, in France - in fourth.

Currently, the world's largest producers and exporters of chicory are: France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain; as well as the USA, China. In small quantities, chicory is cultivated in Russia (in the Yaroslavl, Novgorod and Ivanovo regions), in Belarus and Ukraine.

Plants of the genus chicory (Cichorium) belong to the Asteraceae family, or Asteraceae. The name of the chicory Cichorium in Latin means "entering the fields."



Features of culture

Chicory - large perennial herb up to 1.5 m tall, having a thick fleshy long taproot, straight (rounded or ribbed) rigid, branched rough stem, sharp-toothed lanceolate, stalk-embracing leaves and ligulate flowers in large inflorescences - baskets, located in the axils of the upper leaves and branches.

Flowers - blue, less often - blue, lilac, pink, white; responsive to changes in illumination. The diameter of the flower basket is 2-4 cm. Flowering lasts from June to October. The lower leaves are bristly, toothed, notched, pinnately-separated, collected in a basal rosette.

Chicory is propagated by seeds or parts of the rhizome.

Fruits are prismatic 4-6-sided achenes (2-3 mm long) with a very short bristly crest (light brown or brown, oblong), have a high germination capacity.

Plants of the genus chicory are good honey plants.

Features of chicory agricultural technology

IndicatorChicory
WhitloofEscariolEndive
Predecessor1) desirable: cucumber, cabbage, onion and legumes;
2) invalid: salad, carrot, Jerusalem artichoke, parsley, tarragon, artichoke.
Plot, illuminationLight-loving crops. Well-lit areas (desirable).
Temperature regimeCold-resistant crops. The minimum growth temperature is 8 ° C; resistant to short-term frosts up to -5 ... -6 ° С; root crops - up to -20 ... -30 ° С.
The soilFertile soils. Mechanical composition: loose, with good air and water permeability (light loamy and sandy loam). Soil pH acidity: 6.0-7.0 (slightly acidic reaction of the environment, close to neutral). Grows poorly on acidic, heavy clay soils; does not tolerate fresh manure.
Preparing the soil for planting1. In autumn, after harvesting the predecessor, shallow the soil with a rake. 2. Add rotted manure to the soil, dig up the soil after two weeks to a depth of more than 30 cm. 3. In the spring, apply a complex mineral fertilizer, ash, dig up the soil to a depth of 25-30 cm.
Boarding timeDepends on the selected variety and planting method. Carry out from the end of March to August (for seedlings - March-April; in open ground - May). Consider that it takes 3-4 months to form normal root crops.
Planting method1) seedlings (for an earlier harvest); 2) seeds (sowing in open ground).
SeedlingsSow seeds for seedlings in containers from late March - early April. In the phase of 2-3 true leaves, dive into peat pots. In the phase of 4-5 true leaves, plant seedlings at the age of 30-35 days in open ground. Water liberally after planting.
SeedsLoosen the soil deeply before sowing. Sow seeds in open ground when the soil warms up to 8 ... 10 ° С (from the beginning of May); then roll the soil a little. Shoots appear in 4-12 days; loosen the soil.
Planting scheme (sowing)The seeding depth is 1-2 cm. When planting seedlings, the root collar is on the soil surface. 1) in rows with row spacing of 30-40 cm, the distance between plants in a row is 20-30 cm; 2) double-line tapes: the distance between the lines is 20-30 cm, between the tapes is 40-50 cm; 3) planting in a square-nesting way according to the scheme 30 × 30, 25 × 25 cm; thickened landing 20 × 20 cm.
Care1. Regular watering; 2. Periodic deep loosening of row spacings, always after watering and rain; 3. Weed weeding; 4. Thinning of seedlings: first - in the phase of 1-2 true leaves (distance between plants 5-10 cm); the second - in the phase of 4-5 true leaves (20-30 cm).
WateringRegular moderate watering with water heated in the sun (does not tolerate overdrying and waterlogging of the soil). During the period of drought, during the formation of root crops and active growth of leaves, increase watering.
Top dressingIf necessary, top dressing with complex mineral fertilizer.
Harvesting and storage of cropsIn October-November, before severe frosts, in dry weather. 1. Dig up roots with a garden pitchfork. 2. Root crops? Cut the tops 3–5 cm at a distance of 2–4 cm above the neck and lateral roots. 3. Before distillation, root vegetables should be stored at 0… -3 ° С in dry sand (sawdust), in a horizontal position.Before the onset of frost, the rosettes of the plants can be dug out, planted in containers (boxes, flower pots), placed in a cool room with a temperature of 10 ... -15 ° C. Leaves can be used as needed.
Features of agricultural technologyDistillationWhitening
Varieties and hybridsThey differ in terms of planting, shape and color of leaves (leafy, root varieties). Universal, not zoned; mainly foreign selection (Belgium, Netherlands, France).

Types of chicory

In total, 12 species of chicory are known, common in Europe, North Africa and Asia (North India and North China), of which four are found in Russia. As an invasive plant, chicory grows in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, North and South America.

Species of economic interest: common chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and chicory salad (Cichorium endivia L.).

Common chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Common chicory is an unpretentious plant. It is widespread everywhere: along the sides of roads, paths, ditches, ravines, in meadows, glades, the outskirts of fields, forest edges, on talus and city wastelands, near houses, on the banks of rivers, fallow lands, in crops, in weedy places. Cultivated varieties (forms):

Common chicory (sowing) (Cichorium intybus var. Sativum L.). Grown in order to obtain raw materials (root crops) for the preparation of drinks and alcohols. Its roots contain more inulin than wild chicory roots.

Chicory Vitluf (Cichorium intybus var. Foliosum L.) (translated from the Flemish language "Witloof" - "white sheet"). Vitluf is grown as an annual forcing crop. In the first year, a large basal rosette of leaves and a taproot are formed. The grown root vegetable is used for forcing heads of cabbage with wide leaves of white, creamy white or light yellow color, which are used for food. The taste of witloof leaves is juicy, tender, crunchy with a slight bitterness.

In the second year, a straight stem with blue or white flowers is formed.

There are several versions of the emergence of the witloof. According to the most common of them, chicory witloof in 1850-1851. received the chief gardener of the Botanical Garden of Brussels Franz Brezier by forcing heads with smooth light leaves from the roots of common chicory.

Brezier identified the main necessary factors for forcing a high-quality witloof - these are absolute darkness, a certain temperature and humidity. Vitluf was first introduced to the market in Brussels in 1867, in Paris in 1879. With the passage of time, the methods of growing witloof have been improved, in modern forms the heads of cabbage have become larger and stronger.

Chicory Radicchio (Cichorium intybus var.foliosum L.) - has wide red, dark red or red-violet (less often pink) leaves with creamy white veins.

Chicory salad (Cichorium endivia L.) is a biennial plant that is cultivated as an annual (in the first year, a rosette of leaves and a root crop is formed, in the second, a flower stem and seeds).

The leaves and roots of chicory salad are used for food. There are special leaf and root varieties. After bleaching, the inner leaves of the chicory rosette become pale green, tender and less bitter in taste.

Varieties of chicory salad:

Chicory endive (Cichorium endivia var. Crispum L.), or frieze (translated from French "fris? E" - curly) - has a straight branched stem up to 60 cm tall. Leaves are green and yellow-green in color, thin, oblong, curly, cut (dissected). The flowers are lilac.

Chicory escariol (Cichorium endivia var. Latifolium L.) - has a straight stem 60-80 cm high with large, wide leaves collected in a large basal rosette up to 40 cm in diameter. The leaf blade is weakly cut. The leaves are green or yellow-green. The flowers are blue or pink.

Escariole tastes less bitter than Frize and Witloof.

Read part 2. Application of chicory →

Anna Vasilina


Tomato Country favorite: description of the variety, characteristics

In the fields of the country and in private farms, many varieties of tomatoes are grown both for fresh consumption and for processing.

One of these varieties is the Dacha favorite tomato, which has become widespread among gardeners engaged in vegetable crops.

Characteristics of the tomato variety Country favorite

Plant characteristic

According to the characteristics, the variety is different:

  • stunted, but sometimes requires a garter
  • versatility of cultivation: seedlings are planted both in open ground and in a greenhouse
  • the versatility of the use of fruits.

Tomato variety The dacha pet is not a hybrid, so it is possible to collect seeds suitable for further growing tomatoes.

Description of tomatoes

According to the description, the tomato variety Dacha Pet, planted in a greenhouse, is slightly higher than in open ground.

The shape of the bush is almost the same. Fruit semicircular bush forms 2 trunks, bearing up to 15 fruit clusters. Each cluster has about 12 flowers, which set fruit after pollination. Ripening occurs simultaneously, which makes it possible to collect all the fruits in a brush together.

The fruits of this variety at the stage of milky ripeness are light green in color. A lighter spot is visible at the stalk, which is gradually colored. When ripe, each fruit is evenly colored red without a spot at the stalk. The shape of the fruit is round, slightly flattened at the top.

Seedling

Almost all tomatoes in the middle zone of the country are grown by seedlings. For this, the seed is purchased or harvested independently. 2 months before planting tomatoes in a permanent place, soil is prepared in containers or containers. It should include garden soil, peat and fertilizers.

One day before sowing the seeds, the containers should be in a warm place. Soaked overnight in aloe juice, a solution of boric acid or potassium permanganate, the seeds are thoroughly washed with running water and evenly spread over a flat surface of the ground, sprinkled with a centimeter layer of earth, sprayed with warm water from a spray bottle and covered with a film.

Before planting, the seedlings are hardened

It is necessary to maintain a constant temperature in containers: up to 24 ° C during the day, and not lower than 18 ° C at night.

If there is no condensation on the film, the plants are sprayed with water, but not watered at the root, because this contributes to the erosion of the soil and damage to the weak root system.

After the appearance of the second pair of leaves, the seedlings are dived if it is cramped in containers. For 2 months from germination to planting, seedlings are fertilized 3 times. For this, chemicals or organic solutions are used.

A week before planting in open ground, the seedlings are hardened. Every day, the containers are opened and exposed to the open sun so that on the first day it is for an hour or half an hour, and on the following days the time spent in the open air gradually increases.

Transplanting

Ready-made seedlings are planted in the field, but when planting in greenhouses, they do not need to be hardened. First, prepare the area of ​​land so that there is a distance of 70 cm between the rows, and about 50 cm between the plants. Warm water is poured into the prepared holes, then the seedlings are planted at an angle.

As they grow in greenhouses, fruit bushes are tied up, but they grow no more than 60 cm in height, so that the formation is reduced only to removing unnecessary stepsons and leaves that interfere with the free flow of air between the bushes. Watering and fertilizing tomatoes is carried out on demand. Before the first flowers open, the plants are fertilized for the first time. At least 10 days should elapse between the following procedures.

Dacha's favorite tomato variety requires precise planting care, these are:

  • timely watering
  • fertilization with chemicals or organic matter
  • weeding and simultaneous loosening of the soil
  • destruction of pests.

When fertilizing plants, you need to pay attention to the dosage, never exceed it, otherwise you can expose the plants to burns. To destroy pests, use a mechanical method (manual assembly) or chemical (pesticides)

Diseases and prevention

A summer cottage pet is practically not damaged by late blight, gray rot, alternaria, white spot and other dangerous viruses. But than treating diseased tomatoes, it is better to prevent the disease. For this, it is recommended to use the chemicals Quadris, Phytocid-R, Trichodermin and Pseudobacterin-2. The method of application is always described on the packages.

Tomato Country Favorite. SEEDTOP OF THE WORST VARIETIES OF TOMATOES


Brussels

One of the types of garden cabbage. Came to the rest of Europe from Belgium, hence the name. It is not found anywhere in the wild, which suggests that it was bred by selection. This happened before the 50s of the 18th century, when Brussels sprouts were first described.

She came to Russia in the 19th century, but did not take root. Only a few people grow it here. Meanwhile, in the UK, USA and Canada, it has become widespread.

This type of cabbage is unlike any other, it is so original: small heads of cabbage are located on a thick stem (20-60 cm). From one plant, you can collect from 20 to 40 pieces.

Brussels sprouts are especially rich in proteins and folic acid

The difference from other types of cabbage is the reduced demand for moisture. It is planted in central Russia only through seedlings, since the growing season is from 4 to 5.5 months.

Hercules

  • Early ripening variety.
  • From one bush, you can collect 30 heads of cabbage 15 g each.
  • Disease resistant.

Bunch of grapes

  • The beautiful ruby ​​color and nutty flavor of the heads of cabbage distinguish this variety of Brussels sprouts from others.
  • The variety is late, the growing season is 160 days.
  • The yield from one stem will be 30-40 pieces, 12-15 g each.

Sapphire

  • A beautiful, brightly colored variety, with rows of identical small heads of cabbage 9-13 g each.
  • Their number is 30-35 pieces. The variety is mid-season.


Plantain properties: harm and benefit

The medicinal properties of plantain

The fact that plantain has medicinal properties became known to man for a long time. So, it is very widely used in alternative medicine during the treatment of pleurisy, acute respiratory diseases, bronchial asthma, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, as well as tuberculosis. Preparations made on the basis of plantain help relieve inflammation, improve gastric secretion and cleanse the blood. Also, this medicinal plant is very effective for gastritis, peptic ulcer, whooping cough, enteritis, enterocolitis, malaria, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, as well as inflammatory processes in the bladder.

Fresh juice obtained from plantain herb helps to accelerate regeneration processes in damaged tissues, as well as disinfect wounds and remove pus. It is also known that this herb has a sedative effect, therefore it is used for neuroses, insomnia and increased irritability. Preparations made on the basis of this plant help to normalize blood pressure, as well as relieve swelling.

The medicinal properties of this plant are also widely used for gynecological diseases. So, plantain is used to eliminate inflammation of the mucous membrane and muscle membrane of the uterus, and they also stop uterine bleeding and eliminate ovarian dysfunction. Also, this plant is used to normalize potency in men. Plantain also shows very high efficiency during the treatment of nephritis, enuresis and diarrhea.

Plantain is also widely used externally. So, if there are cracks or cuts on the heels, then this plant will contribute to their rather rapid healing. For this, it is recommended to use an infusion prepared from plantain, it should be mixed with water, which is used for foot baths. If there are abrasions and calluses, then it is recommended to attach fresh leaves of this plant to problem areas at night. The next morning, the damaged skin should be restored.

Plantain is also used for hand skin care. From it at home, you can prepare a fairly effective cream with healing properties. To do this, you need to combine cow oil or honey with plantain infusion. Fresh juice obtained from this plant is perfect for dry skin. Before applying the juice to the skin, it is recommended to dilute it with clean water. From the resulting solution, you can prepare a face mask; for this, the required amount of starch should be added to the mixture of juice and water. The resulting mass must be applied to the skin of the face and kept for a third to half an hour. After that, the face is thoroughly washed with cool running water.

The leaf plates of this plant contain flavonoids, provitamin A, ascorbic acid, vitamin K, enzymes, polysaccharides, uronic acids, tannins, bitterness. And plantain seeds contain fatty oils, mucus, carbohydrates, amino acids and oleanolic acid.

Who is contraindicated plantain

Despite the fact that plantain is, of course, a useful plant with medicinal properties, it, like all medicinal plants, has a number of contraindications. So, drugs made on the basis of plantain are strictly forbidden to be taken by people whose secretion and acidity of gastric juice is increased. If a person has increased blood clotting, then such drugs can also harm him. They also cannot be used by those who have an individual plantain intolerance. Experts advise that before using plantain for the first time in the treatment of any ailment, be sure to consult with a qualified specialist.


The undoubted queen of the garden pleases with a generous annual flowering. Landscape designers willingly use a variety of types of hydrangea to compose flower beds. The garden perennial is widely represented by almost 80 varieties.

Among others, the following varieties are especially popular:

  • White Anna.
  • Annabelle.
  • Grandiflora.
  • Invincibel Spirit.
  • Sterilis.
  • Vanilla Fraze.
  • Limelight.
  • Pinky Winky.

It should be noted that hydrangeas easily change varietal colors when the acidity of the soil changes in one direction or another.

Most of the species are flowering garden shrubs. Breeders have made an effort to stabilize and fix the specific color of the spherical inflorescences for the species.

Varieties with white flower caps look especially elegant and solemn in any weather.

Garden hydrangea grows well in one place for no more than ten years.

The perennial shrub is distinguished by a long flowering period and relative frost resistance.

In natural conditions, there are tree-like, liana hydrangeas. Shrub species are the most widespread. In the wild, the height of perennials often reaches three meters.

However, the domesticated species are significantly shorter than their wild counterparts.

Garden varieties of hydrangeas rarely exceed a person's height.

Deciduous shrub has a fibrous root system. Large pointed oval leaves are located opposite each other on the branches. The edges of the leaves are serrated with pronounced veins. Flowering lasts from mid-spring until the first frost.

Small flowers are collected in large spherical clusters of inflorescences. Usually flowering buds awaken on the shoots of the last year. A wide range of colors is characteristic: from pale pink and deep purple to pale blue and bright purple.

In most cases, soil pH will affect the color. Acidic soil enhances the blue spectrum, while alkaline soil exhibits pink tones.

White caps of hydrangea flowers indicate neutral acidity.


Description of decorative ampelous strawberries

In the past five years, decorative species have been breaking popularity records, and landscape designers are actively using these varieties of strawberries with pink and red flowers to decorate plots, estates, and apartments. The variety grows well at home: in pots, pots, containers, it is distinguished by lush and, most importantly, long flowering.

To compose interesting interior compositions, designers recommend creating a thick green background from decorative leafy plants, which are widely represented on this site. The ideal partners for the fragaria are sansevieria, dieffenbachia, small-leaved ficuses.

Many hybrids are the result of crossing two species of plants in the Rosaceae family:

  • wild-growing Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis)

  • marsh Potentilla (Potentilla palustris).

There are hybrid forms, for example, the Dutch "lipstick", in the parental pair of which there are already familiar cinquefoil and garden strawberry (Fragaria ananassa).

The main characteristics of plants:

  • perennials
  • bushes height - up to 30 cm
  • creeping long stems
  • high foliage
  • beautiful leaf blades - trifoliate, complex shape, rich green color with a glossy surface, with a serrated border around the edges, pubescence on the underside
  • long peduncles (from 35 to 80 cm)
  • the petals are large, their color depends on the variety (varies from pink, purple to rich scarlet, ruby, coral). The middle is yellow.

Berries in almost all varieties are edible, weight - from 3-4 to 15-20 grams. But the main purpose of growing a crop is decorative design, so it is customary to pick berries to extend the flowering time of plants.

In the open field, they are planted in flower beds, on alpine slides, in rockeries as ground cover species. Bulk hills are built especially for strawberries, relief irregularities are used to obtain original carpet compositions of a given shape and volume.

Growing at home - in any containers with a mandatory drainage layer and holes for excess moisture to escape. Bushes look beautiful in hanging baskets, boxes on the windows, in multi-level pots on the balcony, loggia, in the winter garden.


What are gherkins

The term "gherkin" has French roots (cornichon), used in breeding to refer to a group of small-fruited varieties of cucumber culture. In everyday life, this is the name for all zelents, the length of which does not exceed 8-9 cm, but this is not quite the correct name.

Common varieties with fruit lengths of 12-15 centimeters and above with early harvesting, when the greens are still short, are considered immature, not fully ripe. They can be processed using for salting, marinades, conservation.

But in true gherkin type cucumbers, at the genetic level, the maximum length is laid - no more than 9 cm (for pickles - no more than 5-6 cm), and they no longer grow. These greens reach full biological maturity, usually with a small tuberous prickly skin, dense, with a crunch and without voids (see photo). The length is distinguished:

  • standard gherkins - up to 8-9 cm
  • mini - up to 6-7 cm
  • pickles - up to 5 cm.

Hybrid forms of parthenocarpic and bee-pollinated type, bundle arrangement of ovaries and usual, with white or black thorns have been bred. In the main domestic agricultural firms in the crop lines, almost all of them have positions of gherkin-type cucumbers. Also on sale are seeds of foreign selection, gherkins for open and closed ground (greenhouses, hotbeds).

They are grown in shelters (mainly), as well as in open ground conditions. They differ in yield (if appropriate conditions are created), unpretentious care. They are demanding on nutrition, especially varieties of bunchy "bouquet" type of fruiting, since for the formation and maturation of a large number of zelents on one bush, the entire spectrum of macro- and microelements is required.


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