Carnation Shabo: growing from seeds, planting and care

Carnation Shabo: growing from seeds, planting and care

Garden plants

Shabo carnation (lat.Dianthus caryophyllus var.shabaud) - herbaceous perennial of hybrid origin of the genus Carnation of the Clove family. This hybrid form was obtained in the 19th century by the pharmacist Shabo from Toulon from crossing two species of carnation: Dianthus caryophyllus and Dianthus suffruticossus.
In culture, this variety of garden carnations is grown for cutting and landscape design - rabatok, mixborders, flower beds, as well as for decorating balconies, gazebos and terraces.

Planting and caring for Shabo carnations

  • Bloom: from mid-summer to frost.
  • Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - from the second decade of January to the third decade of February, planting seedlings in open ground - in the second decade of May.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: fertile, well-drained, neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
  • Watering: regular, maintenance soil slightly damp at all times.
  • Top dressing: a week after planting - with nitrogen fertilizers, during the budding period - with nitrogen-potassium fertilizers. Mineral fertilizers can be applied under the cloves every 2 weeks, but she does not like organic fertilizers.
  • Garter: high grades need a garter to support.
  • Reproduction: most often cuttings.
  • Pests: thrips, ticks, aphids.
  • Diseases: fungal rot.

Read more about growing Shabo carnations below.

Botanical description

The height of the Shabo carnation is from 30 to 70 cm. Its root system is pivotal, located at a depth of 10-20 cm. The shape of the bush is reverse-pyramidal with a well-defined main stem. Shoots are glabrous, knotty, rounded, gray-green in color. The leaves are also gray-green, narrow, up to 12 cm long and up to 7 mm wide. Large flowers can be simple, double or semi-double, of various colors, folded, corrugated, curved or deeply dissected. Simple flowers usually have 10 stamens, while double flowers can have up to 30 or more of them. The fruit of the Shabo carnation is a cylindrical, multi-seeded box with five teeth, pointed at the end, in which small flat black seeds with a rough surface ripen.

The perennial Shabo carnation is grown as an annual in our climate. We will tell you how to sow Shabo cloves for seedlings, how to care for seedlings, how to grow Shabo cloves outdoors, how and what to feed them, when to water, when to pinch Shabo cloves and how to protect them from diseases and pests.

Growing Shabo carnations from seeds

How to sow seeds

For growing seedlings of Shabo carnations, a light substrate of a neutral reaction is used, for example, a mixture of sod or garden soil, peat, humus and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1. Plastic containers, boxes, bowls, photo cuvettes, or any other low containers with drainage holes are suitable as utensils. The optimal height of the seedling dishes should be no more than 5-6 cm, since deep containers increase the risk of excessive dampness of the substrate.

Seeds of Shabo carnations are sown for seedlings from the second decade of January to the third decade of February. Sowing earlier will require constant artificial lighting, while later sowing can push the carnation flowering back into late summer.

Shabo carnation seeds do not need pretreatment, but you can hold them in a growth stimulant solution - there will be no harm from this. Fill the seedling container with a damp substrate, level the surface, being careful not to press the soil too much, and spread the Shabo carnation seeds over the surface 1 cm apart. From above, the seeds are sprinkled with a layer of calcined sand 3-4 mm thick - this measure will save the seedlings from black leg disease. Cover crops with glass or foil.

Seedling care

Shabo carnation seeds need special conditions for germination. The optimum temperature for this process is 15 ºC, but if your room is warmer, then place crops as close to the floor as possible. Do not let the substrate dry out, but you need to ventilate the crops and remove condensation from the film every day, since the seedlings of Shabo carnations are very sensitive to rot. Moistening of the substrate is carried out in the morning from a fine-dispersed sprayer, as soon as the top layer of the soil dries up.

Seeds will begin to germinate as early as 4-5 days, and the mass emergence of seedlings will begin a week after sowing. As soon as the first shoots hatch, the film is removed, the crops are transferred to the southern windowsill and kept at a temperature of 12-13 ºC. Too long seedlings need to add soil mixture. Control the development of the seedlings, and if they begin to stretch, arrange artificial lighting for them for several hours a day. Remember to regularly ventilate the room without creating drafts. Watering should be scanty, keeping the soil slightly moist. Avoid waterlogging!

Picking a carnation Shabo

Due to sowing too early, Shabo cloves will need two picks. The first pick is carried out in the phase of formation of a pair of true leaves. Seedlings are planted in separate cups or seedling cassettes with cells with a diameter of 4 cm.The second pick is carried out approximately at the end of March at the stage of full development of four pairs of leaves: the plants, together with an earthy clod, are transferred into pots with a diameter of at least 10 cm.With each pick, the level of burial of the seedlings is preserved the same, and only if they are very elongated, deepen them no more than 2 cm.

When the seedlings form five pairs of leaves, the seedlings need to be pinched. If the plants look pale and grow very slowly, feed the seedlings over the leaves with low concentration nitrogen fertilizers.

Immediately after the second pick, the Shabo carnation from the seeds is subjected to hardening procedures. The most popular way to adapt seedlings to the cold is to lower the night temperature by 10 degrees. For this, containers with seedlings are taken out overnight in an unheated room. When it gets warm, you can keep the seedlings under a film in a greenhouse, unless, of course, there is no night frost. You can take seedlings out into the garden in the sun during the day, away from wind and drafts, and bring them into a greenhouse at night until the air temperature at night rises to 7-10 ºC.

Planting Shabo cloves in the ground

When to plant

Seedlings are planted in open ground immediately after the May holidays, without waiting for summer weather, since even short-term frosts down to -3 ºC will not damage hardened seedlings of Shabo carnations. The plant prefers sunny areas with fertile neutral or slightly alkaline soil. Shabo carnation will not take root only in poor sand or heavy clay.

How to plant

The soil on the site for Shabo carnations is prepared in the fall: 45 g of phosphates and 20 kg of compost or humus per m² are covered for digging. In the spring, nitrogen and potash fertilizers are applied to the soil at 15 g and 25 g per m², respectively. The procedure for planting seedlings is usual: pre-watered plants are transferred together with a clod of earth into planting holes, deepening the root system into the soil strictly to the same level at which it was before. That is, the root collar must remain above the surface. The feeding area of ​​one plant is approximately 25x25 cm, which means that no more than 16 plants can be placed on one square meter of land. After planting, the seedlings are watered.

Shabo carnation care

Growing conditions

Growing a Shabo carnation is not an easy task. In order to get large flowers for cutting, you will have to invest a lot of work. How to grow a Shabo carnation? You will need to follow these procedures:

  • regular watering to maintain light soil moisture;
  • careful weeding and loosening of the soil after rains and watering;
  • application of fertilizers to the soil: for the first time, fertilizing is carried out with nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, for example) at the rate of 15 g per m² a week after planting seedlings in the flowerbed, the second time - during the budding period with ammonium nitrate at the rate of 10-15 g per m² and the same the amount of potassium sulfate. Like all annuals, Shabo cloves do not like organic fertilizers, and mineral fertilizers can be continued to be applied every 2 weeks;
  • tying up tall varieties of shoots that can lie from rain or strong winds;
  • constant monitoring of the condition of plants and the implementation of preventive measures to protect against diseases and pests.

Keep in mind that Shabo cloves cannot be grown in one location for more than two years, and try not to thicken the planting.

Stepping

If you need large flowers for cutting, from the moment when buds begin to form on a Shabo carnation, until late autumn, you need to carry out pinching: all the buds and shoots are broken out from the axils to the sixth node, so that the central bud develops into a large flower. Carnation flowering can be extended by removing wilted flowers in time. Carnation can bloom until late autumn, but with the onset of cool days, the buds will bloom more and more slowly, and the quality of the flowers will deteriorate.

Reproduction of Shabo carnation

Since cloves are easily cross-pollinated, the seed propagation method using self-collected seeds may not give the expected result, since it does not guarantee the preservation of the characteristics of the variety. That is why it is better to dig up the plant you like in the fall, shorten its shoots, transfer it to a cool room for the winter, and cut the cuttings from the middle part of the shoots of the mother bush in the spring.

The lower cut at the internode is made oblique, treated with Kornevin or another root formation stimulator, and the cuttings are planted in wet sand. Leave only the upper leaves on them, and remove the lower ones. Cover the cuttings with a transparent jar or glass jar to create a greenhouse effect. Air the cuttings daily, moisten the sand as needed, and after three weeks the cuttings will grow roots, and soon bushes will form. Cutting is the only way to preserve all the varietal characteristics of the Shabo carnation.

Pests and diseases

With proper and timely care, Shabo cloves rarely get sick, but in rainy, stuffy seasons, fungal diseases can overcome it. The plants heavily affected by the infection must be removed from the site, and the remaining bushes must be treated with copper-containing fungicides - Hom, Cuproxat, Bordeaux liquid or similar preparations.

Of the pests, sucking insects - thrips, ticks, aphids can harm cloves. They bite through the ground parts of the plant and feed on cell sap, from which flowers, leaves and shoots begin to lag behind in development, deform, and the plant loses its attractiveness. In addition, sucking insects are carriers of incurable viral diseases. If there are few pests, you can deal with them with an infusion of onion peels, garlic, a solution of tar or laundry soap, but if the occupation is significant, then you will have to resort to treating cloves with solutions of insectoacaricides - Aktellik, Aktara or Karbofos.

Carnation Shabo at home

For a room culture, the Shabo carnation is not a suitable flower: it is not for nothing that it is called a garden carnation. However, with the onset of cold weather, Shabo cloves can be dug up, planted in a pot and brought into a room where it will bloom until mid-November, or even longer. But it will require from you about the same conditions under which the seedlings are grown: cool content and very bright lighting. In the spring, the overwintered mother plant can be used for cuttings.

In a room culture, it is better to grow Chinese, hybrid and even Turkish carnations, and Shabo and the Grenadines, with the exception of some varieties, are plants for the garden.

Shabo carnation varieties

The most famous varieties of Shabo cloves are:

  • Lejeune D'Oner - a plant with dark cherry-red flowers;
  • Girofle - purple carnation;
  • Marie Chabot - a plant with yellow flowers;
  • Jeanne Dionysus - carnation with white flowers;
  • Aurora - variety with salmon pink flowers;
  • Foyer Koenig varieties and Etinselyan - varieties with red flowers;
  • Mikado variety - carnation with purple flowers;
  • Ruby - dark red carnation;
  • Fire king - carnation with bright red flowers with an orange tint;
  • Pink queen - variety with bright pink flowers;
  • La France - carnation with light pink flowers;
  • Benigna - light purple flowers with a purple border;
  • Nero - dark red velvety flowers that do not fade in the sun;
  • Mont Blanc - fragrant white carnation;
  • Champagne - variety with yellowish flowers.

A series of varieties Pikoti, Giant Terry, Aquarelle, Disco, Lyon, as well as a series of hybrids Luminet mixed and Night Series mixed of various colors and colors, have proven themselves well.

In modern hybrids, the time period from the moment of emergence to flowering is two times shorter than that of long-bred varieties, so they can be planted not in February, but in March, when the daylight hours are already long enough, and you do not have to organize artificial lighting for the seedlings. Hybrid plants bloom all summer, and compact varieties with a stable stem are used for landscaping balconies and flower beds. Some of them can even be grown in room culture.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Carnation family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Information about Garden Plants
  6. Information on Perennial Plants
  7. Information about Herbaceous plants

Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Carnation (Carnation) Plants on G


Carnation Shabo: planting and care in the open field

The Shabo carnation can without exaggeration be called the most spectacular hybrid variety of garden carnation - large double flowers of all kinds of colors with a pronounced spicy aroma, like a festive fireworks in a flower bed! Surprisingly, this beauty owes its appearance in culture to a simple French pharmacist, whose name she bears to this day. Due to its external attractiveness and long flowering, Shabo carnations are a welcome guest in the flower garden, but not everyone succeeds in growing it. And the point is not at all a whimsical character or exaggerated requirements, it's just that the agricultural technology of culture is somewhat different from the technology for growing many other garden plants and has a number of characteristic features. It is about them that a florist who dreams of admiring the beauty of Shabo on his site should know about them.


Favorable days for planting carnations in 2021 according to the lunar calendar

  • January - 1, 2, 11-15, 17-20, 25-30
  • February - 5-15, 18-20, 23, 26, 28
  • March - 2-8, 26-29
  • April - 14-15, 20-22
  • May - 10-11, 17-18.

Bad days in 2021

  • January - 8, 15-17, 23
  • February - 15, 21
  • March - 9, 19-21, 24
  • April - 16
  • May - 7-9, 13-16.

Carnation Shabo: plant varieties. Planting and care, growing from seeds

Carnations are the most common flowers in gardening. The numerous genus of the clove family includes more than 400 species, on the basis of which various varieties and hybrids have been bred, adapted to private cultivation and harsh climatic conditions. There are one-, two- and perennial varieties with common external features, but of different heights. One of the brightest representatives is considered the Shabo carnation, which is ideal for growing in the garden or for cutting. In its original form, it lives in the Mediterranean countries.

Despite the fact that the Shabo carnation belongs to a perennial culture, it is used as an annual in garden decoration. It is a compact, dense bush 25-30 cm high.It has a weakly branching rhizome, buried in the ground to a depth of 15–20 cm. The foliage is opposite, without petioles, oblong-elongated, greenish-gray color. The knotty bare shoots are crowned with double or simple inflorescences of various shapes with a diameter of 7–8 cm. The palette of shades is rich, there are pink, white, scarlet, purple, yellow carnations. During the flowering period, from mid-summer to frost, the plant exudes a pleasant aroma.

Carnation is light and heat-loving, does not hibernate in the harsh Russian climate. It begins to bloom 4–5 months after planting. Although the Shabo carnation covers a wide range of varieties, hybrids and mixtures, it surprises with its stable consistency of species indicators. All varieties are grown according to the same principle, therefore, in their choice they are guided only by the color and shape of the inflorescences. From the extensive list of varieties of Shabo carnations, a number of the most popular are distinguished:

NameDescription
Pikoti DionysusBushes 50-60 cm high with double flowers 6-7 cm in diameter. Mainly white and pale pink color. Long-lasting and abundant flowering. Keeps freshness in cut for a long time
LyonIt has bright yellow and purple buds. Cold-resistant variety, easy to care for
Pikoti Fairy Tale Large double flowers with a diameter of 7 cm are collected in groups. Delivers a pleasant aroma. The bushes are medium-sized, about 50 cm.Petals of a contrasting color, combine several shades
Pikoti Fantasy A bright representative, stands out with a rich color palette during the period of bud dissolution. There is a contrasting coloring. The plant reaches a height of about 60 cm
ChampagneVariety with golden-yellow inflorescences and erect stems 50 cm high.One plant produces up to 20 flowers per season
Watercolor Variegated flowers with a delicate and strong scent. The bushes are undersized, reaching a height of 30–45 cm
Giant terry A hybrid mixture with large fluffy purple and yellow buds. The plant is 45-50 cm high. The flowering period is from August to October. Suitable for border decoration
DiscoA beautiful biennial 35-50 cm high. The flowers are fragrant double and large (up to 8 cm in diameter). Blooms from July until the first autumn frosts. Moderately cold-resistant. For the winter, the plant is dug up and transplanted into flower pots.
BenignaLight purple buds with dark purple edging. In size they reach 5–8 cm. The plant blooms in late June and lasts until late autumn. Average height is 35 cm
Fire king It blooms with bright red buds with an orange tint
Mont Blanc The stems are extended to a height of 55-60 cm. The flowers are lush white. In diameter - 8-9 cm. Up to 15-20 buds bloom at the same time

Mixtures Luminet mix, Night series, Etensilana, Nero are no less in demand. Modern hybrids differ from long-established varieties in a shorter budding period from the moment of sowing. Such specimens bloom throughout the summer, and compact mixtures are suitable for home cultivation.

For planting carnations, a loose, moisture and breathable substrate with a neutral alkaline medium is used. It is advisable to prepare the following composition: sod land, peat, humus and fine sand. Any mobile container with a height of no more than 5–6 cm and with drainage holes at the bottom is suitable for seedlings. A deeper container creates dampness, which negatively affects the plants.

You can sow seeds for seedlings from January to the end of February. For an early procedure, it will be necessary to additionally equip artificial lighting, which is due to the short daylight hours. Seed material of a carnation practically does not need preliminary processing, but it is better to soak it in a growth stimulator. On the prepared and moistened substrate, the seeds are distributed at intervals of 1 cm. Sprinkle on top with a layer of calcined sand, which will help to avoid damage with a black leg. Cover with foil or glass, place in a room with a temperature of +15. + 16ºC. If the room is warm, it is best to place the seedlings on the floor, where it is cooler.

Care consists of regular monitoring. Condensation must not accumulate under the glass. The soil is not allowed to dry out, it is ventilated daily and the accumulated moisture is removed. Watered by surface spraying, preferably in the morning.

Single shoots hatch in 3-5 days. Mass shoots appear after a week, then the film is removed. Landings are rearranged to a cooler place with a temperature of +12. + 13ºC. With a strong pulling of the sprouts, additional artificial lighting is organized and the soil mixture is added. The room is ventilated in a timely manner, without creating drafts. Moisten the soil moderately, monitoring the condition of the soil.

In connection with the early sowing, the plant is dived twice. For the first time, they resort to this at the stage of formation of the first 2-3 leaves, then at the end of March, when several stable pairs of leaves develop. The seedlings are transferred together with the earthen clod into different pots with a diameter of at least 10 cm. It is convenient to use small peat glasses. In the future, this will make it easier to land in open ground. The plant is buried to the root collar, leaving it on the surface.

With the formation of 5 pairs of leaves, the tops are pinched. This technique speeds up the branching process. If the seedlings are weakened, they are fed with nitrogen-containing compounds in a low concentration. Gradually, hardening is carried out, taking seedlings outside in the daytime. Start with 5-10 minutes, increasing the time daily. In this case, it is ideal to use a greenhouse: during the day the plant can be exposed to the street, and at night it can be brought in.


Container preparation

For convenient sowing of Shabo carnations on seedlings, use seedling boxes of different sizes, plastic containers, flower pots, peat pots or tablets.
Important requirements for the landing container are:

  1. The height is not more than 6 cm. If you take a deeper container, then there is a danger of waterlogging the seedlings and the loss of seedlings.
  2. The presence of drainage holes and a drainage layer. Saplings do not tolerate stagnant water, therefore it is necessary to ensure the outflow of excess moisture. If this is not done, the seedlings will be susceptible to the spread of rot, wilting of leaves.
  3. Mandatory disinfection. Use a solution of potassium permanganate, "Fitosporin-M". Some summer residents are limited to boiling water treatment.

The next step in growing Shabo carnations from seeds at home is the correct preparation of the planting material.

Seed preparation

Presowing treatment is needed for seeds that were harvested on their own. If they are bought in a specialized store, then the manufacturer has already taken care of this. Such a seed can be immediately placed in the soil.

In order for the planting of Shabo carnations on seedlings with seeds from their site to be successful and the seedlings to sprout well, it is required to prepare the planting material:

  1. First, it is calibrated. This is necessary to select suitable full-weight specimens. A 3% -5% solution of table salt is prepared, into which clove seeds are placed. Mix several times and then select only those that have settled to the bottom.
  2. The second stage is disinfection from pests. For this, heat treatment is carried out. This is the name of soaking for 1 hour in water heated to 50 ° C with the addition of potassium permanganate.
  3. Some gardeners additionally place seeds in a growth stimulant solution.

After such events, you can safely start planting Shabo carnations with seeds.

Sowing

Sowing of Shabo carnations for seedlings is carried out according to the technology for small seeds.

The container is filled with soil mixture and tamped a little so that the seed does not fall into the voids. It is convenient to use the bottom of a glass jar for this. The earth is poured not to the very top, leaving at least 1 cm from the side.

Let us consider in detail how to sow Shabo carnations for seedlings in order to get the maximum germination percentage. Small seeds are not immersed in the ground, but simply scattered over the tamped surface. Then sprinkle with calcined sand. It is prepared in advance. It is necessary to pour sand in a thin layer on a baking sheet and bake in the oven at a temperature of 65 ° -100 ° C for half an hour. This technique protects the seedlings from being damaged by the black leg.
How to sow Shabo carnation seeds for seedlings if they were soaked in a growth stimulant? Only after drying. Otherwise, they will stick together, and you will not be able to distribute them evenly over the surface of the soil. After sowing, sand should be lightly tamped and covered with glass or foil. Thus, they create a greenhouse effect.

Many gardeners prefer sowing Shabo carnations in a snail. This is done in the same way as for seeds of peppers, tomatoes, or other crops. Read more about growing garden Shabo carnations from seeds in a snail on the video:

Seedling care

After the sowing has been done correctly, you need to ensure the seedlings of Shabo carnations and proper care. For seed germination, you will need to maintain an air temperature of about + 15 ° C. Garden carnation Shabo does not require bright lighting and heat in the first days. But the soil is needed commensurately moist. A spray bottle is used for this purpose.

If favorable conditions are created when growing Shabo carnations from seeds, then the first shoots appear in 4-5 days (see photo). The rest appear after 10 days. Above the required temperature, germination slows down. When all the seeds have sprouted, the film is removed.

As soon as the seedlings hatch, the main attention is paid to watering. Seedlings are susceptible to black leg damage. Therefore, waterlogging is unacceptable. Too zealous watering will lead to the death of seedlings. If a problem occurs, the diseased specimens are removed and the soil is sprinkled with ash or crushed activated carbon.

Another important aspect. The planting depth of the seed is not great, therefore, during the growing up of seedlings, soil addition is required.

The air temperature is maintained within 12-13 ° С.

Picking

When growing Shabo carnations, a double pick is required. The first time the seedlings dive when the first pair of leaves appears. This usually corresponds to a plant age of 3-4 weeks. At this stage, the transplant aims to plant the seedlings according to the 4 cm x 4 cm scheme. They do the pick very carefully, trying not to damage the delicate roots.

The second time, seedlings with 3-4 pairs of leaves are transplanted. How to properly dive a Shabo carnation a second time:

  1. It is best to plant the plants in separate containers.
  2. Add humus or nitrogen fertilizers to the soil to improve growth.

At the time of the second pick, the seedlings are buried to the root collar. How to dive a Shabo carnation can be seen in the photo.

In the phase of 5 leaves, the seedlings are additionally pinched. This makes it possible for the plant to form a lush bush.

Video about the correct pick of the Shabo carnation:

Flower growers are interested in the question of how to sow Shabo carnation seeds directly into open ground.
In this case, the main problem is the long growing season of the plant. To get flowering on time, you need to sow in a greenhouse, greenhouse or greenhouse. Then the seedlings are transferred to open ground when the right temperature is established. When to plant a Shabo carnation in a greenhouse when grown from seeds, it can only be decided taking into account the climatic characteristics of the region. The temperature for seedlings needs to be low, but daylight hours are required for a long time. Therefore, sowing is not carried out before March.

Useful video about growing seedlings of garden Shabo carnations:


Beauty in the garden and in the home

In Feng Shui, carnations symbolize nobility and the desire for success and can enhance these qualities in their owners.

And the carnation is also a flower that patronizes everyone who was born under the sign of Sagittarius, so people of this sign are advised to decorate their home with carnations. Some varieties of carnations can stand in a bouquet for up to a month, even without additional feeding.

Before placing in a vase, the stems must be cut under water and the lower leaves must be removed. You can add a teaspoon of sugar and an acetylsalicylic acid tablet to the water. For flowers to last longer, the stems must be pruned regularly.


Alternative breeding methods for Shabo carnations

When using the seed method of propagation, the plants partially give non-double seedlings. Therefore, for hybrid new varieties, cuttings are often recommended as a more reliable method. Shabo carnations can also be propagated vegetatively, but for this, the bushes - mother plants - must be stored in a potted form until spring. They should overwinter in a cool place (the same temperature as for growing seedlings - 12-15 degrees Celsius) with mandatory supplementary lighting. In the spring, cuttings are harvested, leaving 3-4 nodes on the shoots and rooting them either in sand or in water.

You can try to cut the cuttings and in the fall, after rooting, transplant them into the substrate and, in bright light and a temperature of about 10-12 degrees Celsius, grow carnations like seedlings. Shabo carnations obtained by cuttings bloom earlier, but not as abundantly as those obtained through seedlings.


Watch the video: How to Grow and Care Carnation Flowering Plant. करनशन क दखभल