Scheme of the correct pruning of apricot in winter

Scheme of the correct pruning of apricot in winter

Apricot is a noble tree with an early flowering period and tasty fruits, which contain many useful vitamins and minerals for the body. Correctly and on time, winter pruning of a fruit tree can become an obstacle to the emergence of a large number of problems associated with the development and fruiting of apricot. How to correctly carry out the pruning procedure and crown formation?

Benefits of winter pruning

Peach pruning sequence by year

Apricot fruits are in one of the first places among other fruit trees for their medicinal properties and nutritional value. Although such a plant is large in size, it requires a rather impressive piece of land in your garden and attention, but it is worth it. In order for the apricot to pleasantly surprise its owner in spring with beautiful delicate white flowers and a pleasant smell, and in the summer season - with many sweet juicy fruits on the branches, it should be properly looked after. One of the important points in this matter is the winter pruning of apricots. Since this procedure is a serious operation, somewhat painful for the fruit tree, you need to decide on the choice of the season.

In winter, experienced gardeners advise pruning branches and forming a crown because the plants are still dormant during this period, which can make apricot pruning more gentle. A tree cut on time and correctly will be able to grow and develop normally.

It is important to know that pruning is best done on the day when the temperature on the thermometer does not drop below minus 8.

Indeed, if pruning is carried out at too low a temperature, then the plant will be too fragile, and the wounds obtained after cutting off the branches will heal for too long.

Since the crown of a light-loving fruit tree is quite well branched, has flexible and thick branches, when pruning it, gardeners set themselves the following tasks - to promote the annual formation of new viable shoots and maintain a healthy culture. What are the clear advantages of pruning apricots during the cold season? Since there are no leaves on the tree in winter, you can normally consider the state of the crown of the plant. This will make it possible to determine exactly how to prune the branches.

The procedure, carried out in winter, reduces the stress state that the culture has at any other time of the year. With the onset of cold weather, wood freezes, so it is much easier to cut it, in winter there will be no unwanted seizures when using a hacksaw or pruner. It is in the winter season that it is possible to arrange the stairs as conveniently as possible, without worrying about accidentally damaging other trees located in the immediate vicinity of the apricot on your garden plot.

If you do not form a crown for young trees, they will not bear fruit normally, and will also have low immunity to various kinds of diseases, you can observe the drying out of the branches, as well as the depletion of the plant by too early abundant harvests. If you carry out pruning, following all generally accepted norms, correctly form the crown, then you can be sure that your garden tree will grow viable, healthy, and will bear fruit for a long time and with high quality. Although apricot has the property of giving an annual increase, it still cannot form the required number of lateral branches, therefore, it is possible to achieve their increase only with the help of timely pruning.

Crown formation scheme

As mentioned above, the crown of the apricot is quite branched, and young trees have the ability to quickly increase its volume and form summer shoots. Therefore, after a certain amount of time, the shape of the crown of a fruit tree from a reverse pyramidal shape becomes wide pyramidal. The apricot tree cannot independently control the number of fruits on the branches, which grow too much, already having branches at a young age that reach a length of about one meter. They move away from the tree and form sharp corners, and such a crown is not strong enough. Most of the emerging ovaries produce fruits, thus a serious problem arises - an overload in fruiting. The main purpose of winter pruning is the possibility of the appearance of new strong shoots every year. For most of the zones where the industrial cultivation of apricots takes place, a sparse-tiered type of crown can be called characteristic. There are also schemes for the formation of a tree crown like a bowl or single crowns - the so-called tiered types.

Scheme of pruning an apricot tree in winter

It is customary to carry out restorative pruning of a tree if it is frozen over during an overly harsh winter. In this case, only the affected branches are removed, and new ones are formed from the young ones. As the fruit tree grows and the annual growth decreases, it is necessary to carry out anti-aging pruning by transferring the main skeletal branches. Of the young shoots, it is necessary to leave only the most viable ones, having a normal arrangement, in order to subsequently be able to transfer them to fruiting, and remove the rest.

In ordinary garden plots, it is customary to use a flattened type of crown formation when pruning. This is due to the fact that suburban areas are of limited size. Three to four main branches of the tree must be laid so that the distance between them is not less than 40 cm, as well as singly, which will significantly affect the strength of the plant base and can positively affect the illumination of the crown. That is why, when forming a sparse-tiered type of crown, at a close distance of about 20 cm, it is permissible to place several branches at most.

The last step in creating the crown of a tree from branches that are at an angle of about 50 degrees is the transfer of the main conductor to a branch, which will already be somewhat weaker. If possible, in the process of planting a skroned additive, two branches that grow in the opposite direction should be directed along the row. In the first year of apricot life, it is recommended to cut short branches on the sides by about half of the entire length, and the central conductor - 70 cm from their base.Between the end of the side branches and the upper cut of the main one, it is customary to leave a distance of about 30 cm, and the branches at an angle of 90 degrees are cut "on a ring". According to the parameters of the divergence of the main branches of the fruit tree, the angle in the upper part of the crown should not be less than 55 cm, and in the lower part - less than 45 cm.With the timely reduction of the main branches and the main plant conductor in the second and third years, the rules of subordination should be adhered to. This means that in varieties with a rather weak branching - such as Pineapple, Orange-red, Superior - the pruning level should be gradually increased, and if apricot varieties have medium or strong division (Red-cheeked, Ruby, Golden Summer) this process advise to weaken.

Apricot Pruning Video

The post shows how to properly prune the apricot and how to correct the mistakes of the previous pruning.

Apricot, like many other fruit trees, is characterized by a tendency to thicken during growth, which in turn leads to the appearance of various diseases, improper tree growth and problems with fruiting. To avoid this, it is necessary to carry out regular pruning of the crown, which shape it and allow you to remove incorrectly growing branches.

By pruning trees, the gardener accelerates fruiting, which allows you to get a harvest as early as possible.Despite the seeming difficulty of such work, pruning an apricot is not particularly difficult. With due diligence, even novice gardeners can cope with this work.

Remember only the need to use a high-quality disinfected tool, as well as the correct timing of such trimming. All this will be the key to the successful completion of this work, and the gardener will be able to prune the apricot tree with ease, guaranteeing its excellent growth and good fruiting.

How to prune an apricot in spring and fall

Apricot belongs to the category of trees that cannot independently regulate the formation of fruits. Thus, the branches break under the weight of the crop, and the crown is deformed. To prevent this, it is necessary to regularly carry out timely pruning throughout the season, this will help not only preserve the integrity of the apricot, but also improve the quality of the fruit.

Carrying out this procedure requires adherence to deadlines, basic rules and recommendations, and ignoring them can lead to a weakening of the tree's immunity and its death.

As it grows, the upper tier of the branches thickens and prevents the passage of light to the lower shoots. As a result, a huge tree grows, which bears fruit only at the top. And since they are weak, they cannot withstand the severity of the harvest and begin to break off.

Benefits of pruning for apricot:

  • helps to extend the life of the tree by rejuvenating the crown
  • increases the functionality of fruiting branches
  • improves the passage of sunlight to the lower tier
  • forms the correct crown shape
  • improves yield and quality of fruits
  • is a prophylaxis against pests and diseases
  • cleans from damaged and broken branches.

With the help of pruning, a complete redistribution of the forces of the apricot occurs, which has a positive effect on the further growth and development of the tree.

Apricot early in the spring enters the growing season, so the procedure must be carried out before active sap flow in the shoots. This contributes to the rapid recovery of the tree and the healing of wounds.

In case of severe frosting of the branches in winter, it is recommended to prune at a later date, this will help determine the degree of damage.

It is necessary to carry out the procedure only under the condition of a positive air temperature, regardless of the time of day.

The optimal time for pruning apricots in spring is late March-early April, and in autumn - late September-mid-October, depending on the climate of the region.

Experts identify several main types of procedures, depending on the purpose of its implementation. Each method has certain rules and features of the conduct:

  1. 1. Formative pruning. It is carried out for the correct formation of the crown of a young apricot, which helps to strengthen the skeleton of the tree. This type of procedure is used for seedlings under the age of 5 years and is the basis for the further growth and development of the tree. Depending on how correctly the tree will be cut during this period, its further functionality depends. Experts recommend carrying out the manipulation in the spring.
  2. 2. Anti-aging. It is used for old trees that have used up their fruiting potential. This pruning method helps to prolong the life of the tree and helps to increase yields. The procedure is carried out in stages, for three years in a row every spring.
  3. 3. Sanitary. This type of procedure is carried out in order to clean the crown of a tree from damaged, broken and thickening branches. As a result, it makes it possible to improve the permeability of light to the lower tier and is a prophylaxis against diseases and pests. You can use sanitary pruning as needed, but it is best to do this in summer or autumn, since damaged shoots can freeze at low temperatures.

The procedure, depending on the way it is carried out, can be carried out by thinning and shortening the shoots. In the first case, this allows you to clean the thickening branches, which block the access of light deep into the crown. This method increases the yield and quality of the fruit.

By shortening, the shoots are only cut in half. This helps to strengthen the skeleton of the apricot, stimulate the growth of young branches and increase the number of ovaries.

There are several general rules and recommendations that should be followed regardless of the type of pruning carried out:

  1. 1. All necessary tools must be pre-sharpened and disinfected - this will help prevent infection from entering fresh wounds.
  2. 2. It is imperative to observe the priority of the branches, that is, the bottom row should be stronger and longer than all subsequent ones.
  3. 3. Pruning should be done prior to pest and disease treatment.
  4. 4. Skeletal branches must be cut at an acute angle.
  5. 5. Shoots less than 4 cm thick are recommended to be cut under the bud, but so as not to damage it.
  6. 6. The yield of the tree depends on the angle of the branches' connection to the main conductor, therefore it is recommended to leave branches growing horizontally from the trunk.
  7. 7. During the previous season, it is necessary to identify branches that were significantly lagging behind in growth from the rest, since they must be removed in the first place.
  8. 8. When forming the skeleton of a tree, it is necessary to promptly clean the crown of unnecessary shoots that are trying to become the top.

Failure to comply with the rules for pruning apricot leads to a weakening of the tree and a long recovery, which negatively affects its frost resistance.

In order to restore the functionality of trees, rejuvenating pruning of old is carried out by replacing long-growing skeletal branches with young promising shoots - this will improve productivity and extend the life of the apricot.

The main sign of the need for the procedure is an annual growth of shoots of less than 20 cm.

When pruning, you should adhere to the following rules:

  • branches older than 5 years must be removed at an angle of 45 degrees at a distance of 1 m from the main trunk
  • clear the crown of all shoots growing in the middle
  • remove branches pointing down
  • leave one strong shoot on each skeletal branch, and remove the rest
  • drooping branches should be pruned to the first upward branch
  • Cut off the main conductor at a height of 2 m.

Complete rejuvenation of the tree is carried out within 3 years, since too cardinal removal of shoots can lead to the death of the apricot.

There are several types of forming the crown of a young seedling. The most common is the sparse-tiered (the procedure involves 5–7 skeletal branches, which are located at a height of 30–40 cm from each other).

Diagram of apricot crown formation

In the first year after planting the apricot in a permanent place, it is necessary to shorten the main conductor at a height of 90 cm. If there are side shoots, 2 of them should be selected, and the rest should be completely cut into a ring, without leaving stumps. The abandoned branches must be shortened by 1/3.

In the second year, it is necessary to select several more promising shoots that will make up the skeleton of the tree. But they should not be located closer than 35 cm to last year's. The lower tier should be shortened by 1/3 of its entire length, and the new one by half. The main conductor must be cut 40 cm above the upper lateral shoots.

In the third year, the rest of the skeletal branches are laid according to the principle of the previous time. In this case, the main trunk should be cut immediately above the third tier of branches. And the side shoots are based on the principle of priority, that is, the bottom row should be 10-15 cm longer than the next one.

From the fourth year, the apricot begins to form fruits, and therefore the shortening of the shoots is no longer carried out.The crown is cleaned from broken, thickening and damaged branches. This pruning is done annually for the next 3-4 years.

At the age of the tree 6-7 years, another stage of formative pruning is carried out, which will help to increase the number of fruits. Therefore, at the end of each skeletal branch, it is recommended to leave 2-3 shoots, shortening them by 1/3 of the length. Between them, it is necessary to highlight the replacement knot by cutting it off at a length of 15 cm from the base. Also, the crown is cleaned from damaged branches growing in the middle of the crown.

In the future, the formation is reduced to maintaining the correct shape of the crown and timely stripping it from unnecessary branches.

After each pruning of the wound, the tree should be covered with garden varnish to prevent infection.

Sometimes even minor pruning errors can cause severe damage to the tree:

  1. 1. The use of a blunt instrument leads to the fact that burrs remain on the bark, which eventually begin to rot.
  2. 2. Late pruning in the fall leads to the fact that the wounds do not have time to heal, and the tree may freeze out.
  3. 3. Non-observance of the priority of the rows of branches leads to a weakening of the lower row and its further withering away. As a result, the main stem is overstated, and the fruits are formed especially at the top.
  4. 4. Do not leave branches extending from the main trunk at an angle of 30 degrees, as they will break off under the weight of the fruit. The optimal angle of the shoots is 45 degrees.
  5. 5. Overestimated laying of the lower tier leads to the fact that the fruits will be located at least 2 m, which will significantly complicate the harvest.

Apricot pruning can solve the problem of rapid growth of young stock, which negatively affects the yield and quality of the fruit. Timely carrying out of the procedure in compliance with all the rules can significantly increase the functionality of the shoots and extend the life of the tree.

Spring pruning timing

In the spring, pruning of the apricot tree is also carried out. The goal is to remove twigs frostbitten after winter frosts. Basically, weak young seedlings suffer from frostbite, their branches are too thin and defenseless.

Important! It is better to cut young seedlings for the first time in the spring.

In other cases, pruning is carried out to correct the crown - the branches should be located so that the sun's rays have access to each shoot. Ideal - in the shape of a bowl.

The dates for this event are early April. At this time, strong night frosts are no longer observed, so the sections quickly close and overgrow.

On a note. In the spring, you need to have time to cut the tree before the foliage appears, before the sap starts to move.

Pruning sequence by year

Apricot pruning by year

We offer you a fairly simple scheme for pruning apricot by year. Such a pruning scheme for apricot will significantly simplify this procedure, and the gardener will be able to form the correct crown of the tree.

The first pruning is performed in the second year of the seedling's life. This work is carried out in the spring and implies a shortening of the one-year growth. If the tree shows a growth rate of about 50 centimeters per year, then the shoots and skeletal branches are shortened by half the length.

If the growth of the tree is weak, it is recommended to shorten the branches by two-thirds of their length. At the same time, the apex is trimmed, which stimulates the emergence of powerful lateral skeletal branches.

In the third year, the corresponding pruning of the apricot is carried out, in which part of the lateral processes of the skeletal branches is completely removed, and part is shortened by one third and half of its length. Such large-scale pruning allows you to subsequently stimulate the active growth of the tree.

By the fourth year, the apricot will have practically formed a crown and the gardener's task will only be to maintain its optimal shape. For this, the top is shortened with the removal of several upper lateral shoots, the lower and upper branches are trimmed.

It is optimal to shorten the apricot branches so that the powerful skeletal formations are below the one-two-year-old shoots. This will ensure maximum fruiting rates. Care for plantings is greatly simplified, and the gardener avoids thickening of the crown.

Dry branches of apricot. The young branches of the apricot are drying up

Please, help! Apricot is 3 years old, resin forms on the trunk, young branches fade before our eyes! A lot has been written on the Internet about diseases, but very little about their treatment. Tell me what to do, throw out the apricots (2 pcs.) And plant new ones, or still try to treat. And how to treat?

It's a pity to throw it away. The picture is typical for the defeat of moniliosis. Remove all affected branches and grab 5 cm of healthy wood where possible. Watch out for fruits and remove any rotten and mummified ones. This is a hotbed of controversy. Do not allow the crown to thicken. Whitewash the stem and skeletal branches with lime with the addition of copper sulfate. In autumn, after the foliage has fallen off, treat with a 7% urea solution and a 3% Bordeaux liquid solution or 5% ferrous sulfate solution. In the spring again 3% Bordeaux before bud break. It is possible in the fall of iron sulfate, and in the spring of Bordeaux liquid. On the leaves 1% Bordeaux liquid or 0.4% copper oxychloride. It is good to use the preparations Speed, strobe, chorus. According to the instructions, with the obligatory adherence to the period before harvesting. After harvesting, these treatments must be continued. For a year of such a struggle, moniliosis will become small.

OksanaVel (author of the question) May 4, 2016

Thanks a lot for the advice! Two apricots turned out to be very badly damaged, the branches just dried out before our eyes, I still had to remove them, and yesterday I saw that the same thing happened to my cherry miracle. While I will fight for its existence! When the apricot was uprooted, the trunk inside was completely black! Just awful!

Do not plant any stone fruits in the place of uprooted apricots. The black middle is not moniliosis. The core of the tree is affected by verticilliosis, also a fungal disease, but fatal to the tree. If the branches were relatively normal before flowering, and then suddenly wilted and dried up in a day or two, then these are signs of verticillium damage.

OksanaVel (author of the question) May 4, 2016

Yesterday, of course, I planted one new apricot in the same place! What to do? Transplant? And what to do with cherries? Did she have the same signs as the apricot?

If the tree has withered in ONE day, this is a sign of verticillium damage. Before that, it is impossible to notice the disease. If the cherry is alive then moniliosis. At me 3 trees perished in different years - cherry and 2 sweet cherries, have seen enough. To transplant too late, if there was an infection, then picked up already. There is a general rule - after stone fruits, only pome fruits and vice versa. These are diseases and the removal of various nutrients. While the tree is young, pour it with a foundationol solution. It is absorbed by the roots and will help the tree to cope with existing sores.

OksanaVel (author of the question) May 4, 2016

Thanks a lot for the advice! I'll try to fight for cherries, I've already read a lot on the Internet ... .. I'm very sorry for young trees ... ..

Watch the video: How to Care Apricot Plant. Fruit Free. Big Apricot Varieties Urduhindi