By: Bonnie L. Grant, Certified Urban Agriculturist
Mountain mahogany can be seen gracing the hilly and mountainous regions of Oregon to California and east to the Rockies. It is not actually related to mahogany, that glossy wooded tree of tropical regions. Instead, mountain mahogany shrubs are plants in the rose family, and there are 10 species native to North America. Read on for more information on how to grow a mountain mahogany plant and its noteworthy characteristics.
What is Mountain Mahogany?
Hikers and nature lovers that trek or bike in the challenging vertical regions of the western United States probably have seen mountain mahogany. It is an important broadleaf evergreen to semi-deciduous shrub that prefers dry soil conditions and has the ability to fix nitrogen in soil. As a landscape addition, the plant has great potential, especially since mountain mahogany care is minimal and the plant is very forgiving about site and soil.
Of the three most common species of mountain mahogany, dwarf mountain mahogany, Cercocarpus intricatus, is the least known. Cercocarpus montanus and C. ledifolius, alder-leaf and curl-leaf respectively, are the more dominant species in nature. None of the species gets much over 13 feet in height (3.96 m.), although curl-leaf can get to the size of a small tree.
In the wild, alder-leaf mountain mahogany shrubs are rejuvenated by fire, while the curl-leaf variety are subject to serious damage from fire. Each species develops fruits that burst and throw out fuzzy seeds that sprout readily.
Mountain Mahogany Info
Curl-leaf mahogany has small, narrow, leathery leaves which curl under at the edges. Alder-leaf mahogany has thick, oval leaves with serrations on the edge, while birch-leaf mahogany has oval leaves with serration only at the tip. Each is actinorhizal, which means the roots can fix nitrogen in soil.
The identifying seeds must be mentioned in any mountain mahogany info. Each is large and has a feathery tail or plume off the distal end. This tail helps the seed move in wind until it finds a likely place to plant itself.
In the home garden, curly leaf is especially adaptable and can even withstand heavy training from pruning or coppicing.
How to Grow a Mountain Mahogany
This plant is a very hardy specimen, tolerant of drought and heat once established, and survives temperatures of -10 F. (-23 C.). Mountain mahogany care includes regular watering to get them established, but their needs reduce severely after they are used to the site.
They are particularly unbothered by insects or disease, but deer and elk do like to browse the plant. Curl-leaf mahogany is not a competitive plant and needs an area free of grasses and weeds.
You can propagate the plant through its curly tailed seeds, mound layering or cuttings. Be patient, as this is an extremely slow growing plant, but once mature, it can form a lovely arched canopy perfect for providing a spot of sun in the landscape.
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This information comes from: http://www.angelfire.com/de2/newconcepts/wicca/religion3.html
A Chant to the Elements
Earth my body
Water my blood
Air my breath
Fire my spirit
The above chant can be used anytime that you feel the need to attune with the elements, which is what we are getting ready to study. Or perhaps you feel that you need grounding? Use it. Need to get rid of bad feelings? Use it.You will learn about “Attuning with Nature” right after you finish this page. That will be your first attempt at meditation if you are not practiced.
Depending on which branch of the occult you practice, there are either 3 or 4 elements that exist in Akasha. For some, these are Air, Water, Fire, & Earth. The Ancients Celts divided the world into three basic planes of existence –Land, Sky, and Sea — & these are closely associated with the emotions, the human psyche, and with nature. Regardless of which you use, these magical elements are also of some importance in astrology. Many practitioners consider the magical elements as forces, especially within the astral world. Each element has a symbol, a triangle of some sort, and color & many other correspondents attached to it’s name. Thus the names of the four powers of the magi in latin, which are noscere, audere, velle, & tacere, correspond to the elements as well. It was believed that for the magus to achieve balance that all four of these “powers” had to be present & each one corresponded to one of the elements.
Noscere, which means “to know”, corresponds with air
audere, which means “to dare”, corresponds to water
velle, which means “to will”, corresponds to fire
and tascere, which means “to keep silence” corresponds to earth.
A fifth power, ire, which is to progress or evolve, corresponds to the spirit. So to achieve the energies needed to do magick, the practitioner must seek balance as instructed by The Four Powers & to do this, he must become aquainted with the elements on a more than personal level.
Since all life and non-life are intertwined through their energies, the relationships between all things, as you have seen above, is called correspondences. Thus one thing or symbol can be used to suggest another. This is important in magick, for the sorceress or sorcerer (heh, I like those words much better than “witch”, and after all, it is my website, isn’t it?) may surround himself/herself with as many of the appropriate correspondences as he can to vividly affect the senses, thus making his magical contact with the inner self stronger and more visual. Colors and Correspondents of the elements are listed below. Always remember that none of these are absolutes. In fact, you may even find some conflicts here or elsewhere. It doesn’t matter, because these things are up to the sorcerer in the end, since he or she is the one that must “fascinate” that logical side of the their nature within the brain.
The magical elements have correspondences with the tarot cards, astrological signs, spirits, planets, etc as well. To the Ancients, the elementals were the physical explanation of the universe. These included the faeries, mermaids, the jinni (genies), etc. Most contemporary Wiccans/Witches etc. see them only as symbols for internal forces. Another word sometimes used for elemental is ‘familiar’ but this can also mean a beloved pet that makes you feel special and relaxed. A few Correspondences are listed here. After this lesson, you will want to journey on to the page linked directly below this paragraph, and learn to attune yourself with nature. This must be done to tap into your energy sources. Attune with Nature’s Elements
It is important to note that the Celts had different color associations from Wicca or traditional witchcraft. In Celtic magick, the direction of North was black South was white West was grey And East was red. For the most part, the rest followed the traditional correspondences.Earth: (Celtic: North and Black) Money prosperity fertility stability grounding employment.
Air: (Celtic: East and Red)Travel instruction study knowledge finding lost items freedom.
Fire: (celtic: South and White) Protection passioon courage energy power strength banishment.
Water: (celtic: West and Grey) Purification love psychic powers dreams divination peace.
|Earth is YIN||pentacles||north||Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn||Gnomes, Leprechauns, Elves, Brownies|
|Water is YIN||cups||west||Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces||Nymphs, Tritons, Mermaids,Undine, Sirens|
|Fire is YANG||wands||south||Aries, Leo and Sagittarius||Salamander, jin (genies)|
|Air is YANG||swords||east||Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius||Sylph, Faeries, Storm Angels|
Chinese philosophy speaks of yin and yang. This is the idea of polarity, or opposite pairs, as shown below.
|water, earth||fire ,air|
Individual Elements: Traditonal
Air is the element of the intellect, of thought waves, a powerful tool for change, movement in all its’ forms the driving force. It rules spells involving travel, instruction, freedom, knowledge, discovering lost items, and can also be used to develop psychic abilities.It is mental activity, thoughts, reason and intellect, memory, knowledge, persuasion, birth and friendship, freedom, clarification and expression.
A person low on the Air element seems without direction and unable to visualize a future. He is unable to reason out the alternatives and objectives. A person high on the Air element is at ease in dificult scenarios & situations and can always find the time to think things through, and then can carry through with his decisions.
Visualization: Green Semi-Circle
Qualities: hot and moist, light and active
Magical phrase: noscere, to know
Zodiacal signs: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius
Tattvic symbol: blue circle (Vayu)
Tattvic tide: June 21 – September 23
Celtic name:(aer: air) (oirthear: East)
Major Arcana card: Fool (0)
Minor Arcana suit: swords
Positive characteristics: kind, joyful, communicative, intelligent, intuitive, diligent
Negative characteristics: gossipy, boastful, spendthrift, untruthful, selfish, fickle, inattentive
Overbalance: chatterbox, or one who tends to intellectualize to much
Underbalance: muddy thinking one who has difficulty transmitting thoughts and ideas
Symbols Sky – Wind – Breezes – Clouds – Breath – Vibrations – Plants – Herbs – Trees – Flowers.
Goddesses Aradia – Arianrhod – Cardea – Nuit – Urania
Gods- Enlil – Kheoheva – Merawrim – Shu – Thoth
Spirits Sylphs – Zephyrs – Fairies who inhabit the world of trees, flowers and winds.
Guardian Angel- Raphael
Physical- State Gas
Direction of View Outward
Image- Billowing Clouds
Word of Power- Yod-Eh-Vav-He
Posture- Arms raised, parallel
Affirmation- I am intelligent.
Virtues- Intelligence, practical, joy
Vices- Impulsive, frivolous, easily fooled
Part of Person Mind
Energy Flow Crown downwards
Point in Life- Infancy
Season- Spring, Time of freshness
Colors- Yellow – White – Crimson – Pastels
Signs- Gemini – Libra – Aquarius
Sense Smell – Hearing
Stones & Jewels- Topaz – Pumice – Rainbow stones – Crystals – Amethyst – Alexandrite
Magickal Tools- Athame – Sword – Censer – Wand
Metals Tin – Copper
Plants & Trees -Frankincense – Myrrh – Pansy – Primrose – Vervain – Dill – Lavender – Aspen
Animals-Birds, specially Eagle and Hawk. Spider – Raven
Instruments Flute – All winded instruments
Type of Magick Devination – Concentration – Wind magick – Prophecy – Karma – Speed.
Quarter: Candle Yellow
Chakra: Candle Green
Idea: Thought, Imagination
Ritual Work- The mind, all mental, intuitive and psychic work. Knowledge, abstract learning, wind and breath. Inspiration, hearing, harmony, herbal knowledge, plant growth, finding lost things, telepathy, memory, contact the Angels. To know, understand, unlock secrets of the dead, Zen meditation, brainstorms, beginnings.
Places: Mountaintops, Cloudy skies, Windy beaches, High towers, Airports, Schools, Libraries, Offices, Travel agencies,Pschiatrist’s Office.
Water is the element of purification, the subconscious mind. It is love and emotions. Water is the element of absorption and production. It saturates all life forms and within us we flow with the “tide” of our feelings. It involves intuition, insight, conception and pregnancy, fertility, the womb, health, beauty and divination.
A person low on the water element would appear as a cold and calculating person, one who is indifferent, unfeeling, and unresponsive. Yet a high water person may seem as though at the slightest touch, that all his emotions are running on high. He can be over-dramatic & over-emotional at times. The subconscious is symbolized by this element because it is always moving like the oceans.
Visualization- Orange Sphere
Qualities: cold and moist, heavy and passive
Magical phrase: audere, to dare
Zodiacal signs: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces
Tattvic symbol: silver crescent (Apas)
Tattvic tide: September 23 – December 23 Celtic name: (uisce: water)(iarthar: west)
Major Arcana card: Hanged Man (XII)
Minor Arcana suit: cups
Reflection in humanity: emotions, fertility, the unconscious mind
Positive characteristics: Forgiving, easygoing, gracious, sensitive, modest, flowing, compassionate
Negative characteristics: overly emotional, weepy, lazy, insecure, sly, fridgid, indifferent, dependent
Underbalance: a cold, emotionless nature
Symbols- Ocean – Lake – River – Well- Spring – Pod – Rain – Mist – Fog – Shell – Cup of water.
Goddesses- Aphrodite – Isis – Marianne – Mari – Tiamat – Yemaha
Gods- Dylan – Ea – Manamnan – Osiris – Neptune – Poseidon
Spirits- Undines – Nymphs – Mermaids – Fairies of ponds, lakes or streams.
Guardian Angel- Gabriel
Essence- Intuitive, Act of choosing
Energy Flow- Front to heart, with love energy
Direction of View- Inward
Part of Person- Emotions, intuition
Physical- State Liquid
Word of Power- AHIA (Aiy Hey Yeh)
Posture- Arms extended, palms up
Affirmation- I am creative and intuitive.
Virtues- Love, compassion, receptivity, flexibility, forgiveness
Vices-Indifference, depression, instability
Time- Twilight, Dusk
Point in Life -Maturity
Colors- Blue – Blue green – Green – Gray – Indigo – Black
Signs -Cancer – Scorpio – Piscis
Stones & Jewels- Aquamarine – Amethyst – Blue thourmaline – Pearl – Coral – Blue topaz – Lapislazuli – Flourite
Magickal Tools- Cup – Cauldron – Sea – Goblet – Mirrors
Metals- Mercury – Silver – Copper
Plants & Trees- Ferns – Lotus – Mosses – Bushes – Water lilies – Gardenia – Willow tree – Most flowers.
Animals -Dragon – Serpent – Dolphin – Fish – Seals – Water snakes – Sea mammals – Sea birds – Cat – Frog – Turtle – Otter – Shellfish – Swan – Crab
Type of Magick- Sea – Ice – Snow – Fog – Mirror – Magnet – Rain
Quarter- Candle Dark Blue
Chakra Candle- Orange
Chakra- Sex Organs
Ritual Work- Emotions, love, courage, daring, sorrow, intuition, fertility, plants smell, pleasure, friendship, marriage, happiness, sleep, dreams. Reflection, power to dare and cleanse things. Security.
Places- Lakes – Springs and wells – Pond – Stream – River – Beach – Swimming pools – Bedroom (for sleep) – Shower – Ocean – Tides
Fire is the element of change, will and passion. In a way, it contains all forms of magick within it, since magick is the process of change. It’s the realm of sexuality and passion, not only the sacred fire of sex, also the spark of divinity which shines in all living things. It’s the most physical and spiritual of the elements & it represents lust, enthusiasm, desire, courage, force, fertility and virility, initiative and rejuvenation.
A person with a low Fire element is usually cold, passionless & slow acting. He is without enthusiasm for life or himself. A person high on the Fire element, however is bold, dramatic and passionate in all areas of his life. He must be careful as fire can destroy everything in its path & do it quickly.
Visualization- Bright Red Triangle
Qualities: hot and dry, light and active
Magical phrase: velle, to will
Zodiacal signs: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius
Tattvic symbol: red triangle (Tejas)
Tattvic tide: March 21 – June 21
Celtic name: (Teine: Fire) (deisceart: south)
Major Arcana Card: judgement (XX)
Minor Arcana suit: wands
Humour: choler, yellow bile
Reflections in humanity: the life force, sexual energy, will, Passion
Positive characteristics: energetic, enthusiastic, daring, stubborn, faithful
Negative characteristics: stubborn, greedy, jealous, vengeful, angry, resentful, aggressive, possesive, egotistical
Overbalance: one who is dominating, egotistic, violent
Underbalance: one who feels inferior or apathetic lack of energy
Symbols- Lightning – Volcanoes – Rainbow – Sun – Stars – Lava – Heat
Goddesses- Brigit – Hestia – Pele – Vesta
Gods- Agni – Horus – Prometheus – Vulcan
Spirits- Salamanders – Firedrakes
Guardian Angel- Michael
Essence- Power, Force, Prime Mover
Energy- Flow Spine behind heart to hands
Feeling- Enthusiastic, energized
Direction of View- Forward/Future
Part of Person- Will, lifeforce
Physical State- Plasma/Energy
Image- Erupting Volcano
Word of Power- Adni (Add Dough Nay)
Posture- Arms above head, forming triangle
Affirmation- I am powerful.
Virtues- Courage, enthusiasm, willpower
Vices- Anger, jealousy, hatred
Point in Life- Youth
Colors- Red – Gold – Crimson – Orange – White
Signs- Aries – Leo – Sagittarius
Stones & Jewels- Fire opal – Volcanic in lava – Ruby – Agathe
Magickal Tools- Dagger – Censer – Lamp or Candles – Burned herbs – Paper Requests – Knife
Metals- Gold – Brass
Plants & Trees- Garlic- Hibiscus – Red peppers – Cinnamon – Coffee – Beans – Seeds – Chile peppers – Almond tree in flower
Animals- Dragon – Lion – Horse – Snake – Cricket – Mantis – Ladybug – Bee – Scorpion – Shark – Phoenix – Coyote – Fox
Instruments Guitar – String Instruments.
Type of Magick -Candle – Storm – Time and star
Quarter- Candle Red
Chakra- Candle Yellow
Chakra- Solar Plexus
Ritual Work- Energy, spirit, heat, flame. Blood, healing, candle flames, sun eruptions, freedom, change, perceptions. Sexuality, love, passion, learning, authority, strenght, work, physycal exercise, arts, creativity, faith, power.
Places- Desert – Hot springs – Volcanoes – Fire – Oven – Bedroom (for sex)
Earth doesn’t necessarily represent the physical earth, but everything that is secure and dependable. This is the element of our home. It’s the realm of abundance, stability, prosperity and wealth. The element of Earth is seen as the source and provider of all our needs as most of what we use to survive comes from Mother Nature.
It represents sensations, strength, health,decay, patience, balance, stability, warmth and comfort, animals and animal instincts, farming and physical labor. The Pentacle or Rice, Salt or grain in a brass or terra cotta bowl or a Stone of some sort is its’ symbol . The Fourth Quarter is it’s moon & its favored time is Midnight.
A person high on the Earth element is a practical, reliable, down to earth type of person. He would also be a hard worker, & a stable provider. However he tends to be too stubborn at times . A person on the opposite end of that scale, a person low on the Earth element can seem confused, insecure and alone, and his work may be affected.
Visualization- Red Cube
Qualities: cold and dry, heavy and passive
Celtic name:(Talun/ an domhan: Earth) (tuaisceart: North)
Magical phrase: tacere, to keep silent
Zodiacal signs: Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn
Tattivic symbol: yellow square (prithivi)
Tattivic tide: December 23 – March 21
Major Arcana card: Universe (XXI)
Minor Arcana suit: pentacles
Humour: black bile, melancholy
Reflection in humanity: the physical body
Positive characteristics: reliable, punctual, stable, perservering
Negative characterists: greedy, sensualist, materialistic, stody, unprogressive
Overbalance: materialistic one whose circle of ideas is small
Underbalace: Unreliable, careless, tasteless
Direction of View- Towards the Past
Part of Person- Body
Symbols- Rocks – Plains – Fields – Soil – Caves
Goddesses -Ceres – Demeter – Gaea – Mah – Nephtys – Persephone – Rhea
Gods- Adonis – Athos – Arawn – Cernunnos – Dionysus – Mardyk – Pan – Tammuz
Spirits- Gnomes – Dwarfs – Trolls
Guardian Angel -Ariel
Physical State- Solid
Image- Mountain, landscape, plants and animals
Time- Midnight – Night
Point in Life- Advanced Age
Word of Power- AGLA (ah gal lah)
Posture- Arms extended, palms down
Affirmation- I am strong, centered, and knowing.
Virtues- Centeredness, patience, truth, thorough, dependable
Vices- Dullness, laziness, inconsiderate
Colors- Black – Green – Brown – White
Signs -Taurus – Virgo – Capricorn
Wind- Boreas, Ophion
Stones & Jewels -Rock crystal – Salt – Emmerald – Onyx – Jasper – Azurite – Amethyst – Quartz
Magickal Tools -Pentacle – Pentagram – Salt – Images – Stones – Gems – Cords
Metals- Iron – Lead
Plants & Trees- Ivy – Grains – Oats – Rice – Patchouli – Vetivert – Lichens – Nuts – Roots – Oak
Animals- Cow – Bull – Bison – Snake – Dog – Horse – Ant – Bears – Wolf
Instruments- Drums and percussion
Type of Magick- Gardening – Magnet images – Stone – Tree – Knot – Binding
Quarter- Candle Green
Chakra- Candle Red
Ritual Work- Body, growth, material gain, money, creativity, birth, death, silence. Rocks, standing stones, crystals, jewels, metal, rich, treasures, grounding. Mystery, industry, possesions, prosperity, wisdom, runes, teaching, practical wisdom. Burying, planting, making images in dirt or sand.
Places: Caves, Canyon, Forest, Grove, Valley, fields, Parks, Kitchen, Basement,Mines, Hole,Chasm.
There is a fifth element of Spirit known as Ether or Akasha. It is also known a nyu by the druids. This is the element that transcends, yet is a part of, all the other elements. Akasha is actually an East Indian word meaning inner-space, reflecting our belief that the universe is both within and without ourselves. It is the purely spiritual element, the realm of the All. It is protection and justice, movement and mastery, life and death and rebirth. It is often symbolized by the turning wheel, or the sign of Infinity. If you’d like to learn more about NYU, then you can read about it here: NYU. This was written by my friend, Andrea from Italy. He is also doing further research.
It has no direction, yet is all directions. It is the Center, the circumference, above and below. It is beyond seasons and time, yet is all seasons and time.
Quote: “The Vaisesika Philosophy, Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy, by R. Puligandla says of Akasha: “The fifth material substance, namely, akasa (ether), not to be confused with space, is the substratum of the quality of sound. Like atoms, akasha is indivisible, eternal and imperceivable but, unlike them, it is infinite and all-pervading. Akasha is inferred from the sensed quality of sound.”
Table of Correspondences: Ether/Aether
Direction Center and Circumference, Within and Throughout
Rules Transcendence, transformation, change, immanence, balance
Essence Underlies all, connecting all
Energy Flow Nonlocal
Celtic Name: (Anam:Soul) (Lár:center)
Qualitites: timelessness, spacelessness
Magical phrase:ire: to progress or evolve
Tattvic symbol: black oval (Akasha)
Major Arcana card: Fool (0) and Judgement (XX)
Tarot suit: Major Arcana
Reflections in humanity: one’s immortal soul or superconsciousness
Direction of View Holistic
Part of Person Spirit
Physical State Singularity
Image Blue-White Light
Word of Power OM
Posture Back straight, arms sweep, then rest at side
Affirmation I am Balanced. I am All.
Virtues Beyond the concept
Vices Beyond the concept
Time Beyond time, for all time is one time
Season The turning wheel
Colors Violet, Ultraviolet, Brillian White
Tools Cauldron, Altar
Spirits Demigods and Goddesses
Wind Tornado of Power
Sense Inner Knowing
Incense Combination Incense
Tree The Flowering Almond
Goddesses Isis, Shekinah, the secret name of the Goddess, Hera
Gods Akasha, JHVH, Buddha, Zeus
Quarter Candle Silver or Purple
Chakra Candle Violet
Chakra The Third Eye
Visualization Violet Pentacle
Is It Bad to Beat or Hit a Dog?
Spanking, beating, and hitting a dog are all aversive techniques. Pain is delivered to sensitive areas of the dog, such as his ear or muzzle, when he performs a bad behavior.
The argument for this type of dog discipline, is that the pain will discourage a dog from repeating undesirable actions. Every time our dog does something bad, he gets an unpleasant result (pain), which will hopefully dampen his resolve to perform the same behavior.
However, the problem with aversive training, is that it is risky, too personal, and there is no good way to redirect the punishment.
Our dog knows that the pain originates from us, and is not a natural result of his actions.
As a consequence, our dog may end up learning the wrong lessons, including:
- Hitting, slapping, and biting is a fun game that my owner plays with me. Let me try playing it with him, and with others. A dog may arrive at this conclusion, when the pain is not delivered with enough force. Too much force, however, may result in fear aggression.
- A person’s hand or face coming toward me, is a bad thing. I should run away from people, or bite the hand or face that is a threat to me.
- My owner, or a person coming toward me, means pain. I should stay away from people, or keep them away by growling and biting.
If we do not deliver the pain with good timing, with the proper force, and in exactly the right circumstance, our dog may get confused as to why he is getting punished. He may become fearful and stressed, because he is unsure how he can stop the pain from recurring.
As a result, spanking, beating, and hitting a dog may lead to even more behavioral issues, including fear aggression as well as submissive urination.
For these reasons, using physical techniques to punish a dog, is not very good dog kung fu.