Aquarium kabomba: maintenance, cultivation and types of kabomba, reproduction

Aquarium kabomba: maintenance, cultivation and types of kabomba, reproduction

Houseplants

Cabomba (lat.Cabomba) - a genus of aquatic plants of the Cabombaceae family, numbering 5 species that are found in river bays and fresh water bodies with a shallow bottom in North America and from Central Brazil to Mexico. In culture, these plants are grown as aquarium plants.
The kabomba has earned its popularity among aquarists because it easily adapts to different conditions and quickly becomes part of the system, taking part in the cycle of substances in the aquarium.

Planting and caring for a kabomba

  • Lighting: a 12 hour working day is required.
  • Requirements for the water in the aquarium: temperature - 24-28 ºC, pH - 6.0-6.8, hardness - 6-8 units.
  • Top dressing: optional, but if necessary, you can place a few clay balls with fertilizers in the aquarium.
  • Reproduction: vegetatively (cuttings, division of rhizomes, basal processes).
  • Diseases: rot.
  • Pests: blue-green algae, snails.

Read more about growing kabomba below.

Botanical description

Hydrophyte Kabomba is a fluffy bush with dense fleshy stems, which in optimal conditions can reach a length of 2 meters, feathery fan-shaped leaves of bright green, pink or red color and small three-petal flowers. The rhizome of the kabomba is creeping, creeping. Kabomba is not only a beautiful, but also a useful plant: fry can hide in its foliage and adult fish spawn, in addition, the kabomba filters water, absorbing harmful impurities and decay products from it.

Keeping a kabomba in an aquarium

Growing conditions

The kabomba in the aquarium prefers a substrate of dark coarse sand or small pebbles. The optimal water temperature for the plant is 24-28 ˚C, the pH is pH 6.0-6.8, and the water hardness is within 6-8 units.

In the photo: Growing kabomba in an aquarium

The Kabomba aquarium plant requires twelve hours of daylight hours, so you will have to organize artificial lighting for it using fluorescent lamps with a power of 1 W per liter of water: from a lack of light, the leaves of the kabomba turn yellow.

The plant also does not tolerate the presence of lime and blue-green algae in the water.

Kabomba care

Caring for a kabomba is simple. The main task is to change a quarter of the volume of water in the aquarium to fresh water on a weekly basis, and once every 3-4 months, completely replace the water and remove sediment from the aquarium. If your aquarium contains ground-digging fish, you will have to pass the water through a filter often, otherwise the kabomba may die.

Under favorable conditions, the kabomba grows all year round. If you want a denser bush, pinch off the tops of the plant. The kabomba does not need feeding, but if you think that the plant lacks nutrition, you can put a few clay balls with fertilizer under the soil in the aquarium.

Kabomba spreads quickly throughout the aquarium and is capable of consuming less viable aquatic plants, so you will have to control its growth and not keep it near more capricious and sensitive hydrophytes.

In large aquariums, it is better to place the kabomba against the back wall: it will look like a light openwork curtain. In small containers, the kabomba are planted in groups at the corners.

Reproduction

Kabomba can multiply depending on the species. vegetative ways. For example, by cutting the stem or dividing the rhizome. When dividing the rhizome no more than a third of the creeping root is cut off from the mother plant, the segment is divided into pieces 2-3 cm long with a sharp sterile tool. Each of the divisions must have at least one kidney. The segments are laid so that the buds are above the surface of the water, and when leaves develop from the buds, the cuttings are rooted in the ground.

Sometimes a new bush grows from the root of the plant. He is broken off from his mother's kabomb and set aside.

In the photo: Aquarium kabomba

Propagation of kabomba by cuttings of the stem takes a little longer. The stem is separated and cut into pieces, each of which should contain several whorls with leaves. The segments are planted in the ground, deepening the lower whorl into it. After a week, the cuttings usually have roots, and soon they will give new shoots, the tops of which should be pinched to enhance branching.

Sometimes in the autumn-winter period, the kabomba sheds its leaves, and they float to the surface. Do not remove them from the aquarium: over time, these leaves will give roots, and it will be possible to plant leafy cuttings in the ground.

Pests and diseases

If, when planting, you dug the stem of the plant hard, the kabomba may rot. For rooting, simply press the stem to the bottom with a pebble.

Destructive for the kabomba blue-green algae, which breed in hard water. Try to maintain this indicator at a level that is safe for the plant and remove harmful algae from the water in a timely manner.

Of the pests, the danger for the kabomba is snails. Just remove the clams from the aquarium.

The most important condition for the health of a kabomba is clean, non-silted water. If you find that the leaves of the plant have changed color and began to wither, break and fall off, immediately clean the aquarium of sediment and silt and change the water.

Types and varieties

Cabomba caroliniana

Or kabomba the most beautiful grows at a depth of up to one and a half meters in flowing and standing water bodies of North, South and Central America. This long-stemmed plant easily adapts to any conditions of keeping. Its green fluffy bushes grow intensively, so they need to be trimmed periodically, otherwise the stems can reach a length of up to 2 meters. Of particular interest to aquarists is the kabomba variety of the most beautiful kabomba spiral-leaved, or silvery (Cabomba caroliniana tortifolia).

In the photo: Cabomba caroliniana

Reddish cabomba (Cabomba piauhyensis)

Or kabomba red, or forked kabomba, or kabomba furkata (Cabomba furcata) - very attractive, but not the easiest member of the genus to care for. This plant with long, pinkish-red stems and leaves is found in the slow-flowing waters of South and Central America. In aquariums, it is customary to plant it in dense groups along the back wall. If the plant is not cut, its stems can grow up to 1 meter in length.

In the photo: Reddish cabomba (Cabomba piauhyensis)

Water Cabomba (Cabomba aquatica)

Or ordinary kabomba, go bushy kabomba, or kabomba green, or kabomba aquatica - a species widespread in southern Mexico and northern Brazil with a developed root system, thin filamentous processes and a weakly branched stem, round in cross section. This species is very similar to the Caroline kabomba.

In the photo: Cabomba aquatica

Cabomba palaeformis

This is the most unpretentious species to care for, native to Central America. Its leaves are opposite or collected in whorls of 4 pieces. Almost round leaf blades are dissected into many segments up to 4.5 cm long. The plant can be colored both green and red.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Cabombaceae
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Indoor Plants Information

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Somik corridor: maintenance and breeding in a home aquarium

The aquarium fish speckled catfish (corridor paleatus in Latin) has been known to lovers of domestic fish farming for one hundred and forty years and is successfully kept in captivity. It is believed that it is very easy to care for her. But even for an ordinary catfish, there are subtleties of proper care and obtaining offspring.


Types of aquarium plants

The following types of vegetation in the aquarium can be distinguished:

  • mosses and ferns - there are no full-fledged roots and leaves, there is no flowering, no care is needed, they grow in different conditions, are unpretentious, they perfectly decorate the aquarium (azolla, bolbitis, kladofora)
  • stem plants - distinguished by the presence of a trunk (alternantera, tradescantia, rotala)
  • rosette plants - do not have a stem, foliage grows from one point, forming a rosette (Cryptocoryne, Echinodorus, Vallisneria)
  • ground plants - planted in the ground (hygrophila, kabomba, echinodorus)
  • unpretentious plants - require a minimum of attention (nayas, hornwort, elodea)
  • floating plants - float freely on the surface (duckweed, salvinia, marsh flower)
  • ground cover plants - very undersized up to 10 cm, their shoots and roots beautifully envelop driftwood and stones, decorate the facade (riccia, sitnyag, hemiantus cuba)
  • fast-growing plants - they grow rapidly, absorb organic and inorganic substances, enliven the landscape (ludwigia, lemongrass, ambulia)
  • meristemic plants - they are obtained through microcloning, they are identical to each other, not susceptible to snails, algae and fungi.


Varieties of Anubias: Afzeli, Congolese and Bartera

Anubias Afzeli - Anubias Afzelii Schott.

Homeland - tropical regions of West Africa.

This aquarium anubias has several forms. One of them is widely known as A. lanceolata (Anubias lanceolata). Previously, this plant was described under the name Anubias congensis.

Distributed in tropical forests in swamps, the banks of small rivers, streams, wetlands of Sierra Leone and South-West Africa. Under natural conditions, the leaves with petioles reach 35 cm in height, in an aquarium 20-25 cm. When describing this anubias, it is worth noting its rhizome - it is thick, creeping, often branched, up to 15 cm thick, with scars from fallen leaves, adventitious roots are thick, cord-like ... Leaves are simple, petiolate, in young specimens they are collected in a rosette, in adults they are alternate, dark green, oval-lanceolate, fleshy, up to 20 cm long and 3.5-8 cm wide, their base is narrowed, the apex is a blunt-pointed main vein with the upper the side of the plate is slightly deepened, protrudes from below, forming an edge.

This type of anubias is widespread among aquarists. It is grown both in an aquarium and in a paludarium, but it grows very slowly under water. In an aquarium, the height of the bushes usually reaches 50 cm. Anubias are placed in the background. It grows evenly throughout the year. This plant is not very demanding for the conditions of detention.

Anubias Congolese.

Anubias Congolese is one of the largest plants of the genus.

Petioles are shorter in length than leaves. Each plant bears up to 8, rarely more leaves. This ornamental plant is suitable for keeping in a large aquarium, but grows best in an aquarium with a low water level or in a greenhouse in marsh conditions - with diffused lighting and temperatures in summer 26-28, winter 18-22 ° C.

In culture, this species is rare. Distributed in the regions of Western and Equatorial Africa, often found in the lower reaches of the river basin. Congo and Guinea. Its usual habitat is overgrown swamps, the banks of small rivers, it often grows on moss-covered rocks and stones. In natural conditions, it reaches 50 cm in height, in an aquarium it grows to a much smaller size.

Pay attention to the photo - in this type of anubias, the rhizome is thick, fleshy, sometimes branched, creeping, with filamentous adventitious roots:

Leaves are lanceolate, light green, up to 25 cm long and up to 10 cm wide, oval narrowed at the base and towards the apex, dark green above with a glossy shade, paler feathering veins below, the main vein is deepened from above, forms an edge below, it and lateral veins are clearly visible. The ratio of the length of the leaf to its width is about 2.5: 1, the petiole is equal to the length of the leaf or slightly less. The flowers are small, collected in a cob 3-5 cm long and are located inside a wrapped green bedspread.

A variety of this aquarium plant is known - anubias Congolese thick-cob (A. congensis var.crassispadix Engler). It is difficult to distinguish it from the main species by vegetative characteristics. They differ in the structure of the flower cob, which in the named form is shorter, thicker and chestnut in color.

Anubias Barter - A. Barteri Engler.

Distributed in the marshy regions of Western and Equatorial Africa and on the island. Fernando Po.

Leaves with petioles reach 30 cm in it. The rhizome of this variety of anubias is creeping, thick, fleshy, sometimes branched, adventitious roots penetrate relatively deep into the ground.

Leaves are fleshy, asymmetrical, arrow-shaped, from green to pale green, glossy on the upper side, velvety on the bottom, their base with short, oval, slightly backward lobes.

In young plants, the leaf length to width ratio is 2: 1. The leaf reaches its greatest width closer to the middle, to the apex it tapers and sharpens at the end. In an adult plant, the base of the leaf has a shallow notch and basal lobes diverging to the sides; from the base to the top by about 2/3 of the length, the width does not change, but then the leaf gradually narrows. The main vein of the leaf is clearly visible and forms a rib from the lower side, the lateral ones are weakly noticeable. The petiole is approximately equal to the length of the leaf. This anubias grows best in a low water tank.


Pistia content in the pond and plant species

Great for decorating small ponds. She looks great surrounded by water lilies, sedges, rushes, panicles of decorative grasses. Can also be used as a natural filter. The roots of the plant purify water from turbidity.

Pistia is launched into the pond at the beginning of June, when the water warms up to + 15 ° С. In a warm summer, it grows well. When placed in a pond, it should be borne in mind that for the full development of the plant, it is required that the roots are in confident contact with the ground or the presence of fertile soil at the bottom of the reservoir. The plant prefers soft water.

There are several varieties and species, all of them are smaller than the original species - no more than 15 cm in diameter, but have the same high growth rate:

"Aqua Velvet" ("Blue Water Salad") - a smaller plant with bluish leaves. This type of pistia is suitable for miniature ponds.

"Ruffled" ("Shirred water salad") - the smallest form, up to 5-10 cm in diameter, with strongly corrugated leaf tips

"Angyo Splash" ("Variegated Water Salad") - with creamy yellow stripes and spots on the leaves (unstable form, prone to reversals - green rosettes must be removed in a timely manner).

In these photos, the pistia plant is presented in all its species diversity:


Fertilizers for aquarium plants

And the reason, dear friends, is that you completely ignore such an important aspect as plant feeding. After all, it is extremely not enough just to have aquarium devices: plants, like fish, shrimps and snails, are in dire need of minerals!

At first (immediately after planting the plants in the aquarium), the plants still have some of these same mineral substances: they "pull" them out of the soil and water. But after some time, the stock of "minerals" is depleted and plants begin to starve and then degrade. How to solve the arisen problem of acute shortage of substances for plants?

For this purpose, it is necessary to take the simplest, but very effective measures: "feed" the plants! How to do it correctly? Twenty years ago, this problem was solved with "folk" means: adding powdered clay, activated carbon, pieces of brick, red granite, etc. to the soil.

Each of the listed ingredients contains useful minerals: iron, potassium, etc. It is these substances that are necessary for the adequate healthy development of aquarium plants.By the way - although this method of plant nutrition is outdated, it nevertheless remains very relevant today. But along with it, special fertilizer mixtures for aquarium plants are gaining more and more popularity. These formulations are designed with all the requirements in mind: they are perfectly balanced and you just need to observe the correct dosage!

Example: universal fertilizer mixture ADA Green Brighty Step-3 (500 ml). This fertilizer is a liquid that should be added to the aquarium. The essence of the ADA Green Brighty Step-3 is as follows. Over time, the soil in which the plants grow becomes caked and dense. As a result, the main life process - photosynthesis - slows down greatly, and along with it, the growth and development of plants slows down or even stops.

And the ADA Green Brighty Step-3 fertilizer will help to move the process off the "dead center", since it contains iron and potassium: it is these constituent ingredients that "spur" the metabolic processes in plants. Moreover: they are a kind of "aging retarders" of plants!

This example shows how important fertilization is for aquarium plants.


Reproduction of vallisneria

Under favorable conditions, vallisneria easily multiplies, forming many shoots, on which daughter plants appear in turn. For a year, one specimen gives several tens and even hundreds of daughter plants. They can be separated from the mother immediately after the formation of 2-3 leaves and the appearance of roots.

Seed propagation of Vallisneria in artificial conditions is difficult due to the fact that the plant is dioecious, that is, flowers of only one sex are formed on each specimen. Therefore, to obtain seeds, it is necessary to keep several plants of both sexes, since the flowering of individual plants may not coincide in time. The presence of several individuals increases the likelihood of their simultaneous flowering. This is not easy for the hobbyist.

This video demonstrates the content of vallisneria in a home aquarium:


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