Horticultural castor oil

Horticultural castor oil

Horticultural castor oil plants {#s0001}


Castor bean (*Ricinus communis* L.), a dicotyledonous plant, is a native of West Africa but has been cultivated in all tropical and subtropical areas. Oil-producing flowers are usually pollinated by a species of beetle, which lays its eggs inside the flowers. The first attempt to cultivate castor plants for castor oil production was made in the south of France around 1920. By the 1960s, approximately 500 tons of castor beans were being harvested and processed to make about 13,000 tons of castor oil per year. Only about 1,300 tons of seeds are produced worldwide.

Castor oil production uses approximately 7--10,000 liters of water and produces about 75--80 tons of wastewater annually. The process involves treatment of the seeds and extraction of oil from the seeds. Pollution can also occur due to possible bacterial or fungal contamination during the seed processing and extraction stages. The only commercialized alternative to the castor oil is canola, a grain plant in the family *Brassicaceae* that is grown to produce oil for food. Castor oil is used as the food additive to make salad dressings because of its high nutritional value and because of the large quantities of vegetable oil it can replace. This oil contains 5% protein, 17% carbohydrate, 19% unsaturated fatty acids, 24% saturated fatty acids, 18% minerals, 19% vitamins, and 2% essential amino acids ([@CIT0032]).

*Ricinus communis* has been cultivated and used for human and animal nutrition since ancient times ([@CIT0055]). Before 2000, castor oil was the only source of vegetable oil ([@CIT0022]). During the latter part of the 20th century, the price of corn oil increased, thus replacing castor oil. By 2008, more than 99% of castor oil production came from India ([@CIT0019]).

Due to the negative environmental impacts, the production of castor oil has been replaced with canola, which has a low nutritional value and negative environmental impact ([@CIT0054]). Various applications of castor oil include the use as an emulsifier for meat processing, as a non-ionic surfactant for cosmetic products, as a lubricant in machinery, and for cleaning and sanitation. Furthermore, they can be used for wood treatment for ship and boat manufacturing, in the pharmaceutical and medical industries for bandage pads, a rub for human skin and hair, and in carpet cleaning ([@CIT0056]).

Use of castor oil to reduce biofilms {#s0002}


Castor oil is a plant-derived product that has been proven to control biofilms. This biofilm-inhibiting property can be beneficial to cleaning and sanitation. When a bacterial suspension of pathogenic bacteria is added to water, cells attach to the surfaces in the water and begin to multiply. The first step in biofilm formation is the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), which are polymers that form a matrix that provides strength and cohesion to the biofilm. Once the matrix is in place, cells are attached to the matrix and cells multiply. This leads to the formation of a layer, which consists of the bacteria and their products, that is firmly attached to the surface. This structure provides protection from the attack of antimicrobial compounds and physical factors (e.g. temperature, light, and oxygen) ([@CIT0014]). If these organisms are treated with antiseptics, antimicrobials, or biocides, they will not be able to properly defend the biofilm, making the biofilm susceptible to environmental factors. Some biocides may be beneficial in environments where hygiene and sanitary conditions are difficult to maintain, but their use must be monitored due to their toxicity and permanence ([@CIT0053]). Castor oil has been shown to be effective in reducing biofilms when used alone or in combination with other sanitizers. In addition, several inorganic compounds and essential oils are present in castor oil ([@CIT0016]). Some of these compounds are responsible for the oil's antiseptic and antibacterial properties ([@CIT0012]).

Biofilms are usually associated with diseases and are involved in drug resistance ([@CIT0005]). Many pathogenic bacteria (e.g. *S. aureus*, *Klebsiella pneumoniae*, *P. aeruginosa*, *Bacillus subtilis*, *Vibrio cholerae*, *Salmonella enterica* subsp. *enterica*, *Campylobacter jejuni*, *Yersinia enterocolitica* subsp. *enterocolitica*, *Legionella pneumophila*, *Neisseria gonorrhoeae*, *Shigella*, *Enterococcus faecalis*, *Acinetobacter* spp., and *Proteus mirabilis*) can form biofilms on medical devices and become resistant to antibiotics ([@CIT0005]). Some bacteria such as *S. aureus* are capable of forming biofilms with cell layers more than 10 μm thick ([@CIT0049]). Biofilms are more tolerant to environmental changes than are their planktonic counterparts, including exposure to heat, light, and disinfectants, and even antibiotics ([@CIT0014]). Biofilm-

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